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    zaasmiZ

    @zareen
    The Linked List ADT
    We have been using linked nodes to generate our structures for the Stack ADT and the Queue ADT. Now we will consider the linked list. As we have been using this structure for implementing the previous ADT structures, it is perhaps more constructive to look at a variation of the single linked list (known as the ‘sorted’ linked list).

    The idea behind this type of list is that any element we put into the list will have to be put into the correct position by comparing some common value held in each of the nodes. So far the Stack ADT and the Queue ADT did not impose any ordering on the elements we added. If we were looking for a basic linked list, we could use these as the basis for the structure and operations. This is a task you might attempt for yourselves.

    Our sorted linked list ADT will consist of the following primitive operations:

    Create()
    Destroy()
    Add(element)
    Remove(element)
    Traverse()
    IsEmpty()
    Search(element)

    We would generally need a display operation for testing purposes to ensure that the elements are being put into the correct locations. However, the Sorted linked list is a linear structure so any processing done on the list has to be carried out in a linear manner. We must access the list through the Start link / pointer and the list has to be accessed/processed in the order that the nodes appear on the list.

    As we have previously seen, one of the great advantages of the linked data structure is the ease with which it may be modified. Changing the structure does not involve moving the existing nodes. In order to delete a node we update the link / pointer of the node before it and point / link this to the node after it.

    Source

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    M

    Main Link of Past Paper

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    zareenZ

    Which of the following account will not be consolidated when a parent company holds 100% shares of the subsidiary company?

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    zareenZ

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    zareenZ

    If you have Rs. 30 in asset A and Rs. 120 in another asset B, the weights for assets A and B will be ____ and ____ respectively.

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    zareenZ

    I derived certain attributes that each RE approach has in common.
    Firstly, a RE approach consists of a certain analysis technique.
    Secondly, it uses a special notation to make it standardized and applicable for each analyst.
    Thirdly, it follows a fundamental principle to achieve a certain goal.
    Fourthly, there exists not only advantages but also disadvantages, making a RE methodology more or less appropriate for a modeling scenario.

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    zareenZ

    @zareen said in BT603 GDB 1 Solution and Discussion:

    Which of the following is preferable method for the long term storage of Microoraganisms?

    Microbial resource centers and preservation research … Lyophilization is the preferred long-term preservation method in most MRCs due to the …

    Lyophilization is the preferred long-term preservation method in most MRCs due to the low cost of maintenance and ease of transportation of lyophilized cultures. Lyophilization gives satisfactory results for the preservation of many bacteria, yeast and sporulating fungi, but does not adequately preserve non-sporulating fungi (vegetative hyphae), some species of yeast (Lipomyces, Leucosporidium, Brettanomyces, Dekkera, Bulleera, Sporobolomyces) and certain bacteria [Aquaspirillum serpens, Clostridium botulinum, Helicobacter pylori; Smith et al., 2008)]. Lyophilization exerts stress on the cells during vacuum desiccation, and cells raised under stress may respond better to lyophilization (Morgan et al., 2006; Smith et al., 2008). For instance, a culture at stationary phase and low pH condition survived better during lyophilization than did cells in log phase grown at circumneutral pH (Palmfeldt & Hahn-Hagerdal, 2000; Corcoran et al., 2004). However, the above-mentioned generalization is not true for all groups of bacteria (Boumahdi et al., 1999). In general, a suspension medium with 1 × 108 cell mL−1 or more gives a better recovery, whereas glass-forming cryoprotectants are preferred over a eutectic crystallization salt (palmfeldt et al., 2003; Morgan et al., 2006). Although techniques of lyophilization are well established, optimization of lyoprotectants and suspension media are still necessary for certain microorganisms (Crowe et al., 1998; Miyamoto-Shinohara et al., 2000; Carvalho et al., 2003; Gomez Zavaglia et al., 2003; Streeter, 2003; Berner & Viernstein, 2006; Tindall, 2007; Siaterlis et al., 2009). An ideal suspension medium for lyophilization should contain lyoprotectants and matrix materials or excipients. The use of stationary phase cultures, borosilicate ampules, a 1–2% final moisture content of the lyophilized specimen, and storage at 4 °C in the dark are recommended for higher cell viability and longer stability with lyophilization (Morgan et al., 2006; Smith et al., 2008).

    Both cryopreservation and lyophilization have advantages and disadvantages, and the response of preservation varies by species. Even different strains of the same species may respond differently to the same preservation method. The viability and longevity of microorganisms under preservation depends on some critical factors: (1) composition of the suspension and rehydration medium, (2) type of cryoprotectant used, (3) rate of cooling and thawing, (4) growth stage of the culture, (5) cell size and type, lipid content, water content, and initial density of cells (De Kievit et al., 2001; Hubalek, 2003; Ren et al., 2004; Morgan et al., 2006; Smith et al., 2008; Chian, 2010)
    Reff

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    zareenZ

    @zareen said in MCM301 GDB 1 Solution and Discussion:

    compared to students in a distance learning environment.

    The key difference between Live learning and distance learning is geography. Students can be together with an instructor and use online learning, but distance learning implies that students and instructor are separated.

    The big differences include:

    Location Interaction Intention

    A comparison of live and distance teaching and learning has been undertaken to ascertain the focal point that would justify the best-preferred option as far as teaching and learning in DE is concerned. This study is particularly important because as higher education institutions are faced with the challenge of huge number of prospective students seeking higher education in the midst of inadequate infrastructures, it becomes very necessary to look at DE as an option with a combination of different modes of delivering instruction. At the Virtual University of Pakistan, some faculties and departments, especially the distance education department, have adopted the live and online modes of delivering instruction. The pursuit of which would require a critical overview of the two modes to ascertain the strengths, weaknesses and how the two can complement each other for effective delivery of instruction to cater to a large number of students. The review suggested that academics or lecturers should endeavor to adopt the blended or hybrid mode in their teaching and learning. Policy decision makers can also use this study as it provides information on better practices as far as the blended mode of teaching and learning in higher education institutions is concerned.

    We should only use the educational tools that fit your needs.

    At the same time, we also believe that Live learning is superior to distance learning. But in a pinch, distance learning is still a good way to educate students.

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    zareenZ

    Yes there is a positive role as the eyes see the food and perseve it to the senses. If the food is neatly decorated and arranged we feel the urge to eat. Whereas the nose smell food and we get to know if the food is rotten or not. The aroma of the food also attracts us and we have the urge to it.

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    zareenZ

    The principle of professionalism is a standard of personal conduct by a professional in his business dealings. While guidelines for acceptable and expected behavior vary from industry to industry, personal principles typically focus on ethics, code of conduct, appropriate personal interactions and workplace integrity.