Feminism is an organized social and political movement that promotes gender equality. The feminist focuses on analyzing the society in terms of the social position of women and how to improve it so that women can gain equality with men.
Feminism has developed in various historical stages/phases which are called the waves of feminism. The historical development of feminism has been divided into three waves.
• First Wave
• Second Wave
• Third Wave
Waves of Feminism
Examples at Micro Level
Examples at Macro Level
Right to Divorce: In Pakistan a wife can take Khulla and Divorce from her husband.
Right to Education: In Pakistan there is sizeable gender gap in higher education for women. According to the 2011 Human Development Report of the United Nations Development Program, approximately twice as many males as females receive a secondary education in Pakistan. An example of Malala Yousaf Zai who was shot in the head and neck by Taliban insurgents after she had blogged about the destruction and closing of all-girls schools in her town of Swat. Right to vote: Female voters in KPK were prohibited to cast vote according to an old tradition. Even many women’s doesn’t have a CNIC in KPK.
Reproductive Health Rights: In many rural areas of Pakistan woman are unable to make decisions about their own reproductive health care.
Laws for Equal Pay: The Pakistani textile industry is the largest gender-pay gaps industry, resulting in 93 per cent of female textile workers making less than minimum wage.Laws against Domestic Violence: Despite the existence of laws many cases are found of domestic violence. For example, a married woman suffered burn wounds in an acid attack by her husband in Karachi.
Issue of Gender Transformation / Multiple Realities: In Pakistan the issues of multiple realities are prevailing now days. It is difficult to recognize that who is real woman. For example an individual who were born as male but was uncomfortable in his male body and transformed into female.
Derogatory Language: The criticism on sexist and derogatory language against girls and women and new self- celebrating words and forms were invented. For example, the use of the word “Humankind” instead of “Mankind” and also “Chairperson” instead of “Chairman”.
Q2. Exemplify a situation from Muslim World in which any feminist issue was raised and then addressed. (5 marks)
Drive Movement: In Saudi Arabia drive movement was raised in twenty-first century and in 2017, King Salman issued an order to allow women to drive in Saudi Arabia, with new guidelines to be created and implemented by June 2018. Therefore, women’s issue of right to drive was addressed.
Anti-male Guardianship: In Saudi Arabia anti male-guardianship campaign was launched and in 2017 King Salman had passed an order allowing women to obtain government services such as education and health care without the need of permission from a guardian.