@zareen said in PSY404 GDB 1 Solution and Discussion:
why people tend to indulge in that type of behavior.
What are the causes and motives behind it?
I) Physiological Motives:
a. Hunger motive:
We eat to live. The food we take is digested and nutritional substances are absorbed. The biochemical processes get their energy from the food in order to sustain life. When these substances are exhausted, some imbalancement exists.
We develop hunger motive in order to maintain homeostasis. This is indicated by contraction of stomach muscles causing some pain or discomfort called hunger pangs. Psychologists have demonstrated this phenomenon by experiments.
b. Thirst motive:
In our daily life regularly we take fluids in the form of water and other beverages. These fluids are essential for our body tissues for normal functioning. When the water level in the body decreases we develop motive to drink water.
Usually thirst motive is indicated by dryness of mouth. Experiments by psychologists have shown that just dried mouth getting wetted is not enough. We need to drink sufficient quantity of water to satiate our thirst.
c. Need for oxygen:
Our body needs oxygen continuously. We get it through continuous respiration. Oxygen is necessary for the purification of blood. We cannot survive without regular supply of oxygen. Lack of oxygen supply may lead to serious consequences like damage to brain or death.
d. Motive for regulation of body temperature:
Maintenance of normal body temperature (98.6°F or 37.0°C) is necessary. Rise or fall in the body temperature causes many problems. There are some automatic mechanisms to regulate body temperature, like sweating when the temperature rises above normal or, shivering when it falls below normal.
These changes motivate us to take necessary steps. For example, opening of windows, put on fans, take cool drinks, remove clothes, etc., when the temperature increases to above normal level; and closing doors and windows, wear sweaters, take hot beverages when temperature falls down. In this way we try to regulate the body temperature.
e. Need for sleep:
Sleep is an essential process for normal functioning of body and mind. When our body and mind are tired they need rest for rejuvenation of energy. It is observed that there is excess accumulation of a toxin called ‘Lactic acid’ when tired.
After sleep it disappears and the person becomes active. Sleep deprivation also leads to psychological problems like confusion, inability to concentrate, droopy eyelids, muscle tremors, etc.
f. Need for avoidance of pain:
No organism can continue to bear pain. Whenever we experience pain we try to avoid it. We are motivated to escape from painful stimulus. For example, when we are under hot sun we go to shade. When something is pinching we avoid it.
g. Drive for elimination of waste:
Our body cannot bear anything excess or anything waste. Excess water is sent out in the form of urine or sweat. So also digested food particles after absorption of nutritional substances are sent out in the form of stools. We experience discomfort until these wastes are eliminated.
h. Sex motive:
This is a biological motive, arises in the organism as a result of secretion of sex hormones-like and rogens and estrogens. Sex need is not essential for the survival of the individual, but it is essential for the survival of the species. However, fulfillment of the sex need is not like satisfying hunger or thirst.
The society and the law exercise certain codes of conduct. Human being has to adhere to these rules. Usually this need is fulfilled through marriage.
i. Maternal drive:
This is an instinct or an inborn tendency. Every normal woman aspires to become a mother. Psychologists have
Motivation, Emotion and Attitudinal Processes 123 learnt from related studies that, this is a most powerful drive. That is why in many cases the women who cannot bear children of their own, will sublimate that motive and satisfy it through socially acceptable ways, like working in orphan schools, baby sittings or adopting other’s children.
Sara during the first year of her life feels pleasure that centers on the mouth. Things such as chewing, sucking, and biting are the sources of pleasure that reduces her anxiety.
This occurs during the first year of life and the erogenous zone during this stage is the mouth. At this stage, pleasures mainly come from mouth. According to Freud, an adult who is fixated at the early oral stage will engage in abundance of oral activities such as eating, drinking, or smoking. This person also will engage in activities that are symbolically equivalent to those oral activities such as collecting things, being a good listener etc.
During second year of life, Shazia feels pleasure on bowel and bladder elimination. The control she learns to exert over her bodily functions is manifested in toilet-training.
It starts during the second year of life, and the erogenous zone is the anus- buttocks region. It is the stage when the child has to gain control over his physiological processes so that they function in accordance with the demands of the society i.e. the child must be toilet trained. Fixation at this stage may result in physical problems.
Ali during the age span of 3 to 5 years feels pleasure for the genitals and coping with incestuous sexual feelings for his mother. He wants to possess his mother exclusively and get rid of his father to enable him to do so. On the other hand, Sana during 3 to 5 years of her age feels sexual attraction towards her father and hatred feelings towards her mother.
This starts from the third year of life to about fifth year, and the erogenous area are the genital area. This is one of the most complicated and controversial of Freud’s stages. It is the stage of Oedipus and Electra complexes, the resolution of which has profound influence on an adult’s life. The male child experiences the Oedipus complex and the female experience Electra complex.
At the fifth to twelfth years of age, Ahmad feels that his sexuality is repressed into unconscious and he started focusing to identify himself with the same sex parent and interacts with same sex peers.
It lasts from about sixth year to about twelfth year. Here the sexual interests are displaced to substitute activities such as learning, athletics, and peer group activities.
When Rashid reached at the age of puberty, he feels that he reaches the physical sexual maturity and the genitals become the primary focus of pleasurable sensations, which he seeks to satisfy in the heterosexual relationships.
It is the final stage of development that occurs following puberty. It is the time at which the person emerges from pre genital stages as the adults as he/ she destined to become. Now the child has become a socialized adult with heterosexual interests leading to marriage and child- rearing. If, however, the experiences during the pre-genital stages cause fixation, they will manifests themselves throughout one’s adult life.