**Solution (A)**

The formula to calculate the execution time : Execution Time = IC CPI T

IC for Load / Store Instructions

IC for ALU instructions

IC for Control instructions

= Total Instructions Ratio of Load / Store Instructions = 200 0.35

= 70 instructions

= Total Instructions Ratio of ALU Instructions = 200 0.55

= 110 instructions

= Total Instructions Ratio of Control Instructions = 200 0.10

= 20 instructions

Now, we will calculate the total clock cycles required to execute each type of instructions

Total Clock Cycles for Load / Store

Total Clock Cycles for ALU

Total Clock Cycles for Control

= IC for Load / Store CPI for Load / Store = 70 2.5

= 175 clock cycles

= IC for ALU CPI for ALU = 110 1.25

= 137.5 clock cycles

= IC for control CPI for control = 20 3

= 60 clock cycles

Time required (in seconds) for each clock cycle (T)=1/CPU frequency 1 / 500 106 = 0.002 10−6 seconds

= 210−9 seconds

Now finally, we will calculate the execution time

Execution Time (ET ) = Total Clock Cycles 1/ CPU Frequency

= (175 + 137.5 + 60) (1/ 500 106 ) seconds

= 372.5210−9seconds 1/500106 =210−9seconds = 745 10−9 seconds

= 745 nanoseconds

**Solution (B)**

If decrease the average CPI for ALU by 20%, the new average CPI

New CPI for ALU = 1.25 (100−20)/100 = 1.25 0.8

= 1 CPI

If average CPI for Load / Store instruction is increased by 10%, new average CPI New CPI for Load / Store = 2.5 (100 +10)/100

= 2.5 1.1 = 2.75 CPI

Hence, new execution time will be

ExecutionTime(E.T) = (702.75+1101+203)x(1/500106)seconds

= (192.5+110+60)/(5108)seconds

= 362.5 2 10−9 seconds = 725 10−9 seconds

= 725 nanoseconds

**Q. 2 Solution:**

**Solution A (0-Address Code)**

PUSH B

PUSH C

ADD ; gives B+C PUSH A

MUL ; gives A(B+C) PUSH 2

PUSH A

MUL ; gives 2A PUSH C

MUL ; gives 2AC

PUSH B

DIV ; gives 2AC/B

SUB ; gives A(B+C) - 2AC/B

PUSH C

PUSH C

MUL ; gives C2

ADD ; gives POP D

A(B+C) - 2AC/B + C2

**Solution A (1-Address Code)**

LDA C MULA C STA X

LDA A MULA C MULA 2

; loads the value stored at memory location C in Accumulator ; gives C2

; stores C2 at memory location X

; loads the value stored at memory location A in Accumulator ; gives AC

; gives 2AC

DIVA B ADDA X STA Y

LDA B ADDA C MULA A SUB Y STA D

; gives 2AC/B

; adding 2AC/B with C2 stored in X gives 2AC/B + C2 ; stores 2AC/B + C2 at memory location Y

; loads the value stored at memory location B in Accumulator ; gives (B+C)

; gives A(B+C)

; subtracts 2AC/B + C2 from A(B+C)

; stores the result at memory location D