Do you think that television News channels are following code of ethics? Discuss any two major ethical violations and suggest ways to control it.
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“Discuss Bioremediation and factors affeting the use of Bio-remediation”
The factors that directly impact on bioremediation are energy sources (electron donors), electron acceptors, nutrients, pH, temperature, and inhibitory substrates or metabolites. One of the primary distinctions between surface soils, vadose zone soils and groundwater sediments is the content of organic material.
Each of the factors discussed above may limit the use of bio remediation in specific circumstances. All the factors are positive in some cases where bio remediation technology has been successfully completed. Knowledge of the susceptibility to bio degradation of some contaminants is still lacking and toxicity testing is becoming more important. Many reports indicate that bio remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons can lead to reduced toxicity and have been taken as evidence of favorable biochemistry in these cases.
There are many factors that limit bio availability and have the impact of slowing the transport of specific compounds into aqueous phase where biological up take occurs readily. The importance of bio availability is strongly dependent on the nature of the contaminant,the soil chemistry, and the matrix. In some cases, bio-availability is relatively unimportant, while in others it may be critical. The influence of site-specific bio availability on bio remediation must be considered.
Bio activity includes consideration of those parameters that have long been recognized as influencing the rate of bio remediation. With current bio remediation configurations, only certain parameters can be manipulated. This suggests that certain sites may be particularly favorable for in situ strategies, because the bio activity may be easily maintained.
US environmental regulations are complex; the rule promulgation process can often be slow. Intense congressional and public involvement may hinder the writing of regulations which reflect in the field experiences. Rapidly emerging technologies, such as bio remediation, have been delayed by governmental policies that support only proven technologies. The trend is slowly changing and for bio remediation using both indigenous and non-indigenous, naturally occur-ring microorganisms, the regulatory hurdles are de-creasing.
Even with the obstacles discussed above, there are tremendous market opportunities for bio remediation.With the next 10 years, soil clean-up costs alone are estimated to exceed US dollar 30 billion in Europe(Caplan, 1993). This compares with the US dollar 1billion spent thus far. If just 5% of this soil is cleaned using bio remediation, 1.5 billion dollars could be earned through bio treatment methods. Reff
therapies should be used in forensic settings or not?
From the ‘nothing works’ maxim of the 1970s to evidence-based interventions to challenge recidivism and promote pro-social behavior, psychological therapy has played an important role in rehabilitation and risk reduction within forensic settings in recent years. And yet the typical group therapy model isn’t always the appropriate path to take. In this important new book, the aims and effectiveness of individual therapies within forensic settings, both old and new, are assessed and discussed. Including contributions from authors based in the UK, North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand, a broad range of therapies are covered, including Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Mentalisation Based Therapy, Schema Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Compassion Focussed Therapy. Each chapter provides: an assessment of the evidence base for effectiveness; the adaptations required in a forensic setting; whether the therapy is aimed at recidivism or psychological change; the client or patient characteristics it is aimed at; a case study of the therapy in action. The final section of the book looks at ethical issues, the relationship between individual and group-based treatment, therapist supervision and deciding which therapies and therapists to select. This book is essential reading for probation staff, psychologists, criminal justice and liaison workers and specialist treatment staff. It will also be a valuable resource for any student of forensic or clinical psychology.