PAK 301 short subjective Questions


  • Cyberian's Gold

    1: What is ideology?
    IDEOLOGY is a set of beliefs, values and ideals of a group and a nation.

    2: What is the Ideology of Pakistan?
    Ideology of Pakistan sought its roots from the religion of Islam. It basically means
    that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to
    live according to their faith and creed based on the Islamic principles. They should
    have all the resources at their disposal to prosper and to enhance Islamic culture
    and civilization without any fear of being dominated by an unsympathetic Hindu
    majority.

    3: What is Two Nation Theory?
    Two Nation Theory means that there were two major nations in the British India.
    Both the nations were different and distinct from each other with regard to their
    culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and
    nomenclature, sense of values and proportions, legal laws and moral codes, customs
    and calendars, history and tradition, in short they had their own distinct outlook on
    life and of life, so they would have their separate homelands

    4: What was the Khilafat Movement/Tehrik-i-Khilafat?
    The Khilafat movement was a religio-political movement launched by the Muslims
    of British India for the retention of the Ottoman Caliphate and for not handing over
    the control of Muslims’ holy places to non-Muslims.

    5: What was the Objectives Resolution?
    The Objectives Resolution was the first constitutional document that proved
    ‘foundation’ of the constitutional developments in Pakistan. It provided parameters
    and sublime principles to the legislators. It made the constitution-making process
    easy task setting some particular objectives before them that would be acceptable to
    the people of Pakistan

    6: What is foreign policy?
    Foreign policy usually refers to as the general principles by which a state governs its
    reaction to the international environment and its interaction with other states7: RCD and ECO?
    RCD and ECO Pakistan, Iran and Turkey signed Regional Cooperation for
    Development (RCD) in July 1964. It worked for economic development till 1985. As
    it fell short of expectations and could not meet the goals set forth before it, so it was
    renamed as Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). Later on, Afghanistan and
    five Central Asian Republics, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan,
    Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan joined it. Now ECO is working for more cooperation
    among its members to enhance development level of its members. Hope it will prove
    its worth and achieve the goal of development for its members

    8: Islam believes in one nation (Ummah) then why Two Nation theory was
    propounded for the Muslims of the subcontinent?
    Islam creates one Ummah (Nation). In no way it means that all the Muslims of the
    world should come together and form one country. Islam believes in justice, peace,
    security and welfare of humanity. It exhorts its followers to struggle for the cause of
    Justice, peace, security and welfare of humanity. No matter where they are, they
    should follow its commands and injunctions. Boundries do not matter in Islam,
    what matters complete submission to Allah, following in the footsteps of the Holy
    Prophet and continuous struggle for justice and welfare of humanity. Pakistan was
    created on the basis of Two Nation theory because the causes for which Islam has
    stood since its inception was under threat in the subcontinent. It was not possible for
    the Muslims of the subcontinent to struggle freely for Islamic causes. It was in the
    fitness of things to propound Two Nation theory to create a separate state for the
    Muslims where they can prosper without the fear of unsympathetic majority.

    9: What was the purpose of the Two Nation Theory of Sir syed Ahmad khan?
    The purpose of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was to create awareness among the Muslims
    about their separate identity, to warn them of the Hindu designs and plots hatched
    to subjugate the Muslims, and to make the British accept and treat the Muslims as a
    separate nation. As he was a great well-wisher of the Muslims, so he thought the
    Two Nation Theory as a way to protect the Muslims’ interests in the subcontinent.
    Given the conflicting interests, if Hindus and Muslims had been together after 1857,
    there would have been civil war in the subcontinent and the resultant destruction
    and dejection. Giving them their separate status and separate domain to work for
    their prosperity was the only solution to the complicated situation of the
    subcontinent. This was the real idea behind the Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s struggle.

    10: What was Hindi-Urdu controversy?
    During the last days of the Muslim rule, Urdu emerged as the most common
    language of the northwestern provinces of India. It was declared the official
    language, and all official records were written in this language. In 1867, some
    prominent Hindus started a movement in Banaras in which they demanded the
    replacement of Urdu with Hindi, and the Persian script with the Deva Nagri script,
    as the court language in the northwestern provinces. The reason for opposing Urdu
    was that the language was written in Persian script, which was similar to the Arabic
    script, and Arabic was the language of the Quran, the Holy Book of the Muslims. The movement grew quickly and within a few months spread throughout the Hindu
    population of the northwestern provinces of India. The headquarters of this
    movement were in Allahabad. This situation provoked the Muslims to come out in
    order to protect the importance of the Urdu language. The opposition by the Hindus
    towards the Urdu language made it clear to the Muslims of the region that Hindus
    were not ready to tolerate the culture and traditions of the Muslims. The Urdu-
    Hindi controversy had a great effect on the life of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. Before this
    event he had been a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity and was of the opinion
    that the “two nations are like two eyes of the beautiful bride, India”. But this
    movement completely altered his point of view. He put forward the Two-Nation
    Theory, predicting that the differences between the two groups would increase with
    the passage of time and the two communities would not join together in anything
    wholeheartedly

    11: What was Swaraj (self-rule)?
    Swaraj was meant that India should be ruled by Indians not by the Britains. It was
    an objective to get the Britain leave the Indian subcontinent and establish a
    government led by the Indians. In other words it was meant independence for India.

    12: What kind of disagreement had Jinnah with Gandhi on the issue of Swaraj (self-
    rule)?
    Gandhi wanted the type of Swaraj that was awarded by the British to its other
    colonies in which there were democratic governments (government by the majority).
    Quaid-e-Azam was opposed to the kind of setup. He wanted self-rule suitable to
    India and with due safeguards for the minorities. As the government by the
    majority was meant Hindu Raj in the subcontinent. Quaid-e-Azam was against the
    Hindu-Raj

    13: What was ‘Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam’?
    Some leading and sincere Muslim leaders picked up the incentive in order to lesson
    the influence of the Hindu and Christian missionaries and decided to set up
    Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam on September 24, 1884 in a mosque known as Masjid
    Bakan Khan inside Mochi Gate, Lahore, where nearly 250 Muslims decided to set
    up the Anjuman for the educational guidance of the Muslims of the Punjab.

    14: What was Moplah Revolt?
    Moplahs were the descendents of the Arab Muslims settled in the Sub-Continent
    even before the arrival of Muhammad Bin Qasim. In August 1921, at Malabar
    Coast, near Kalicut, they revolted against Hindu landlords. Hindus feudal lords of
    that area with the collusion of the British managed to transfer large tracts of
    agricultural land to their name and this act antagonized the local Muslims who were
    poor peasants. These suffering poor peasant Muslims started an armed revolt
    against the local landlords and the government. The government resorted to
    repressive measures which resulted into deaths of thousands of Moplahs. It is called
    Moplah Revolt.

    15: What was ‘Indian Home Rule League’?
    On April 23, 1916 Bal Gangadhar Tilak formed The Home Rule League in Bombay.
    Joseph Baptista became President and N.C. Kelkar Secretary of Tilak’s Home Rule
    League which forestalled that of Mrs. Besant. Six months later Mrs. Annie Besant
    founded the league in Madras. "Dr. Besant started the Home Rule League in India
    for obtaining the freedom of the country and reviving the country’s glorious cultural
    heritage. The objective of both Home Rule League was to attain ‘self-government
    within the British Empire by all constitutional means’, and to educate public
    opinion for the same. They were Moderates and against the Liberal Party
    Dr. Annie Besant is one of those foreigners who inspired the love of the country
    among Indians. She declared in 1918 in her paper ‘New India’, “I love the Indian
    people as I love none other, and… My heart and my mind… have long been laid on
    the altar of the Motherland”. Annie Besant, born of Irish parents in London on
    October 1, 1847, made India her home from November 1893. Dr. Besant started the
    Home Rule League in India for obtaining the freedom of the country and reviving
    the country’s glorious cultural heritage. She started a paper called "New India”. She
    attended the 1914 session of the Indian National Congress and presided over it in
    1917. Dr. Besant died in 1933

    17: Why were the minorities of Pakistan not interested in separate electorate?
    In Pakistan the minorities were in a scattered position and it was too much difficult
    for their representative to go to them, listen to their problems and finally solve their
    problems. They were only 3 percent of the total population. Moreover, there was no
    bias against them in the Muslim society. They had complete independence with
    regard to every sphere of life. The experience of separate electorate was not good for
    them. That was why they wanted to be the part of the big majority.

    18: What was the 2nd constituent Assembly?
    Governor General Ghulam Muhammad called a Convention on May 10, 1955 for
    the purpose of electing a constituent assembly. All its members were to be elected
    indirectly (by the provincial assemblies). In this way, the Second Constituent
    Assembly came into existence. The Second Constituent Assembly convened in 1955.
    It differed in composition from the First Constituent Assembly because of the
    notable reduction of Muslim League members and the presence of a United Front
    coalition from East Bengal. In 1956 the Constituent Assembly adopted a
    constitution that proclaimed Pakistan as a Islamic republic and contained directives
    for the establishment of an Islamic state. It also renamed the Constituent Assembly
    the Legislative Assembly

    19: What were some “weak aspects” of the western culture which Dr. Allama Iqbal
    knew at that time?
    There are a number of weak aspects of the western culture that were observed by
    Allama Iqbal i.e. separation of state and religion, territorial nationalism,
    deteriorating moral standards etc.20: Who was Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi?
    Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi (Hazrat Mujadid Alf Sani) was a great saint and mystic of
    the Naqishbandi order. He challenged the might of Akbar, the great Mughal
    emperor, to re-establish the glory of Islam which had been greatly threatened by the
    anti-Islamic trends of Akbar.

    21: What were the circumstances that led to the Lucknow Pact?
    Important developments occurred during the first decade of the 20th century like
    annulment of the Partition of Bengal and Western aggression against Muslim
    countries, Balkan wars, Libya-Italy war, demolition of the mosque in Kawnpur
    (1913), etc. weakened the Muslims’ faith in the British. This led to a major drift in
    the Muslim League’s policy. In 1913, the League changed its goals: 1: Self
    government under the British Crown keeping in view the peculiar conditions in
    India; 2: Good relations with other communities; 3: Cooperation with any party
    working for similar goals. This change brought the ML and the Congress closer. In
    this way the era of cooperation between Hindus and Muslims set in. The role of the
    Quaid-i-Azam is highly noteworthy to bring the Congress and the Muslim League to
    the table. All these developments led to the conclusion of the Lackow Pact.

    22: what is the impact of Aligarh movement on today’s Pakistan?
    Majority of the leadership of Pakistan Movement was the product of Aligarh
    Movement. All India Muslim League was also created from one of the different
    platforms of Aligarh Movement. Emergence of Pakistan was the result of the efforts
    of the Aligarh Movement. Aligarh Movement is the best example for all of us today
    to learn how we can create dedicated and sincere leadership by the power of
    knowledge and how we can create a movement for the welfare of the Muslims of
    today.

    23: What was SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan?
    Scientific Society was an organization that was established by Sir Syed Ahmad
    Khan in Ghazi Pur. The purpose of this society was to create a scientific
    temperament among the Indians in general and the Muslims in particular and to
    make the Western knowledge available to Indians in their native languages. The
    society performed its job efficiently. Under this society the books of science, history
    and literature were translated into native languages because, according the concept
    of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, it was impossible to spread the scientific knowledge
    amongst the Indians in general and the Muslims in particular till the scientific
    knowledge which was available in English would be made available to the Indians in
    their native languages.

    24: How did ALIGARH MOVMENT play a SCIENTIFIC ROLE?
    Aligarh Movement played important role in scientific field by establishing different
    institutions which worked for the spread of scientific knowledge among the Indians.
    Prominent among those institutions was Scientific Society. The purpose of this
    society was to create a scientific temperament among the Indians in general and the Muslims in particular and to make the Western knowledge available to Indians in
    their native languages. The society performed its job efficiently. Under this society
    the books of science, history and literature were translated into native languages.

    25: As British were against the Muslim so did they try to create any obstacle in the
    way of Aligarh Movement?
    The British Government was in favor of modernization amongst the Muslims and
    Aligarh Movement was striving to spread modern knowledge amongst the Muslims.
    The British did not create any obstacle in the way of Aligarh Movement which was
    working for educational and political development of the Muslims.

    26: what is Charismatic Leadership?
    Charisma is a rare personal quality attributed to leaders who arouse fervent
    popular devotion and enthusiasm or personal magnetism or charm. Charismatic
    leader is a leader who possesses these traits and with the help of these qualities he
    inspires the masses to follow him and his program. This kind of leadership can
    bring revolutionary changes.

    27: What are extra-constitutional means?
    Extra-constitutional means are those means which can not be justified under the
    prevalent constitution and are in violation of constitution.

    28: What is agitational politics and prejudice?
    Agitational politics is a type of politics in which more and more protests and
    demonstrations are used to achieve political objectives. Prejudice means: 1: An
    adverse judgment or opinion formed beforehand or without knowledge or
    examination of the facts. 2: The act or state of holding unreasonable preconceived
    judgments or convictions. 3: Irrational suspicion or hatred of a particular group,
    race, or religion. 4: Detriment or injury caused to a person by the preconceived,
    unfavorable conviction of another or others.

    29: If British Government was in favour of Indian Muslims’ modernization then
    how Hindu community came closer to the British Government rather than
    Muslims?
    After the War of Independence of 1857 the Hindus immediately adapted themselves
    to the changed rulers and environment. They started learning English and modern
    knowledge. On the other the Muslims refused to learn English and modern
    knowledge which was available in English. The blame of the War of Independence
    of 1857 fell on the Muslims. So it was natural for the British to co-opt the Hindus.
    The British thought that as the Muslims had been the rulers of the subcontinent
    prior to the British and they (Muslims) wanted to regain the control of the
    subcontinent and the War of Independence of 1857 was started by the Muslims to
    achieve that object. These were the reason which resulted into British-Hindu
    collusion. The British were of the opinion that the narrow-mindedness of the
    Muslims was the real cause of the problem so they if not supported but
    countenanced the Muslims thrust towards modernization.

    30: what was main cause of clash between Jinnah and Nehru on which Jinnah left
    the Congress?
    The Congress had become explicitly a Hindu organization and had started working
    openly for the interests of the Hindus. This was the major reason that had convinced
    Mr. Jinnah to leave the Congress.

    31: Why and when did the British bestow the title of “Sir” upon the Sir Syed
    Ahmed Khan?
    It was the tradition of the British to award the title of ‘Sir’ upon the people with
    distinction. When Syed Ahmed Khan visited London in 1869-70, the title of ‘Sir’
    was bestowed upon Syed Ahmed Khan, which entitled him to prefix his name with
    ‘Sir’. Thence he became “Sir Syed Ahmed Khan”.

    32: What is the difference between Aligrah Movement and Khilafat Movement?
    Aligarh Movement and Khilafat Movement were different movements. Aligarh
    Movement was launched for the educational, political, social and religious uplift of
    the Muslims while Khilafat Movement was launched to protect the Ottoman
    Empire, Institution of Khilafat and the Muslim holy places

    33: Did Sir Syed Ahmed Khan have any enmity with ULEMA?
    Sir Syed had no ill will or feelings against any Ulema rather he wanted the Ulemas
    not to reject modern knowledge which was available in English because of their
    hatred against the British. He wanted them to work for the uplift of the Muslims by
    acquiring modern knowledge and also urged the Muslims to seek modern
    knowledge.

    34: What was the ‘Day of Deliverance’?
    In protest against the policy of the British government over India regarding World
    War II, all the Congress Ministries resigned till October 22, 1939 and All India
    Muslim League decided to celebrate this development. So it was decided to celebrate
    December 22, 1939 as ‘Day of Deliverance’. Deliverance was meant to be deliverance
    from the oppressive policies of the Congress Ministries.

    35: What was Jallianwala Bagh incident of 1919?
    In April 1919, a number of Indians gathered in Jallianwala Bagh to protest against
    the brutal policies of the British government. General Duiyer ordered the troops,
    who were deployed there to suppress any protest, to open fire on the protesting
    Indians. As a result 379 people died and thousands injured. It was the most tragic
    incident in the history of the subcontinent. This incident is also evident to fact that
    the British treated the Indians brutally and ruthlessly.

    36: What is the difference between Parliamentary and Presidential system?
    In Presidential system the center of political power is the President but in the
    parliamentary system power rotates around the prime minister who is head of the government. In the parliamentary system President is only the ceremonial head of
    the state

    37: What is the difference between Supreme Court & High Court in terms of their
    powers?
    Supreme Court is the highest court which accepts the appeals against the cases
    decided by the High Courts. The High Courts are at provincial level while the
    Supreme Court functions at the federal level.
    38: What is the meaning of ‘Dar-ul-Harb’?
    This is meant an area where non-Muslims ruled.

    39: In which book did Sir Syed point out the similarities between Islam and
    Christianity?
    In ‘Tabyin-ul-Kalam’ Sir Syed pointed out the similarities between Islam and
    Christianity. Due to lack of resources the work was not finished, but it showed Sir
    Syed’s commitment to improve relations of British and Muslims

    40: Who was the founder of the 'Indian National Congress’and who was the Indian
    Viceroy at that time?
    A former member of the Indian Civil Service, Allan Octavian Hume (commonly
    known as A. O. Hume), was founder of Congress. He formed Congress in 1885 and
    Lord Dufferin, was Viceroy of India at that time, fully supported him in his efforts.

    41: What was ‘Doctrine of Lapse’?
    In 1848 Governor Dalhousie extended British control even further by applying the
    Doctrine of Lapse. According to this doctrine when a ruler dies without a natural
    heir the British would annex his land. This doctrine also stipulates that when a
    person dies without a natural heir his property would be acquired by the British
    Government.

    42: What was ‘The Loyal Muhammadans of India’?
    In 1860 Sir Syed wrote ‘The Loyal Mohammedans of India’. In this work he
    defended the Muslims from the British accusation that they were disloyal. He gave a
    detailed account of the loyal services rendered by the then Muslims and named
    various Muslims who had shown particular loyalty to the British. At the same time
    he called on the British to end their hostility towards the Muslim community.

    43: What was ‘Tabyin-ul-Kalam’?
    Sir Syed Ahmad Khan wrote ‘Tabyin-ul-Kalam’, in which he pointed out the
    similarities between Islam and Christianity. Due to lack of resources the work could
    not be completed, but it showed Sir Syed’s commitment to improving relations
    between Islam and Christianity. This book was another effort on the part of Sir
    Syed, in the academic field, to create an atmosphere of good will between the British
    (who were Christian) and Indian Muslims.

    44: What was ‘Tahdhib-ul-Aklaq’?

    Sir Syed did not like conservative attitude of Muslims. He was worried about the
    social condition of Muslim and wanted the revival of their social life. He took many
    steps for betterment of the Muslims. For this purpose he published the magazine
    “Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq” This magzine outlined the ethical aspect of the Muslims life. Sir
    Syed criticized the conservative way of life of Muslims and advised them to adopt
    new trends in life. This magazine was written to teach the Muslims to adopt the true
    teaching of Islam and do not follow the social custom. For this purpose he opened a
    number of orphanage houses for Muslims children to save them from the influence
    of Christian missionaries.

    45: What was difference between Viceroy and Sectary of State in British India?
    Viceroy was head of Indian affairs with in India apointed by British government
    and Sectary of State was incharge of Indian affairs in London.

    46: When the British government created the North West Frontier Province?
    In 1900, Lord Curzon created the North West Frontier Province in order to settle
    the constant battles that were going on there amongst the tough independent
    tribesmen. Before this NWFP was part of the Punjab Province. In 1900 it got the
    status of individual province in the British India.

    47: What was difference between Viceroy and Governor-General?
    The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency
    of Fort William. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833. In
    1858, India came under the direct control of the British Crown. The title
    “Governor-General” applied to his relationship to the British Provinces of India
    (Punjab, Bengal, Bombay, Madras, United Provinces, etc.). However, much of
    British India was not ruled directly by the government; the territory was divided
    into hundreds of nominally sovereign princely states or “native states” whose
    relationship was not with the British government, but directly with monarch. To
    reflect the Governor-General’s role as representative from the monarch to the
    feudal rulers of the princely states, the term Viceroy of India was applied to him;
    the title was abandoned when India became independent in 1947. The office of
    Governor-General continued to exist until India adopted a republican constitution
    in 1950.

    48: What was ‘Khutbat-i-Ahmadiya’?
    Sir William Muir, a Christian writer, wrote a book with the title ‘Life of
    Muhammad’ in which he had made highly objectionable remarks about the Holy
    Prophet (PBUH). In return, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan wrote ‘Essays on the Life of
    Muhammad (Khutbat-i-Ahmadiya)’ in which he gave proper answers to William
    Muir’s remarks in his book.

    49: What was Muhammadan Educational Conference?
    Muhammadan Educational Conference was set up by Sir Ahmad Khan in
    1866.Muhammadan Educational Conference held public meetings in various parts
    of the country. It established its sub-committees in all parts of the country. This Conference rendered valuable services in cultivating spirit of action and self-help
    among the Muslims. The meetings of this Conference discussed modern techniques
    for the development in the field of education and suggested ways and means for the
    adoption of modern techniques for the improvement of the educational standard.
    Some very eminent scholars and leaders were included in this conference who with
    their dedicated approach aroused hope, spirit and enthusiasm among their
    brethren. They were Nawab Muhsin-ul-Mulk, Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk, Maulana
    Shibli and Maulana Hali who inspired the people with their spiritual, academic and
    political acumen and insight.

    50: What was the outcome of Gandhi-Jinnah Talks (1944)?
    In September 1944, Gandhi Jinnah talks were held at Jinnah’s residence at
    Bombay. Rajgopalacharia’s formula and the Lahore Resolution formed the basis of
    these talks. In these parleys Jinnah stressed on his famous Two-Nation Theory but
    Gandhi refused to accept Muslims as separate nation. Thus these talks remained
    fruitless.

    51: What was Quit India Movement (1942)?
    After the failure of the Cripps Mission, India National Congress started ‘Quit India
    Movement’. In this Movement Congress was demanding that British should Quit
    India immediately and hand over powers to Indians. The British Government dealt
    with this Movement with iron hands. Thousands of Congress workers were killed
    arrested or detained. Muslim League remained aloof from this Movement.

    52: What was August Offer (1940)?
    In the start of Second World War Germany pushed the British troops out of the
    European mainland. At this critical juncture Great Britain needed the assistance of
    Indians to boost its War efforts. As a result the Viceroy of India Lord Linlithgow in
    August 1940 made a constitutional offer to the Indians in which he promised to
    expand the Executive Council of the Governor-General, to establish a War Advisory
    Council, to give constitutional safeguards to the minorities and to set up a
    constitution making body after the War. The Muslim League welcomed the offer
    but the Congress rejected it terming it insufficient and unsatisfactory

    53: What is the difference between Presidential system of government and
    Parliamentary system of government?
    In Presidential system the center of political power is the President but in the
    parliamentary system power rotates around the prime minister who is head of the
    government. In the parliamentary system President is only the ceremonial head of
    the state.

    54: What is the difference between a ‘Theocratic state’ and a ‘Secular state’?
    The system under which there is no state religion yet all religions and faiths enjoy
    equality of treatment. In the strict literal sense, secularism denotes a system that
    rejects belief in God, religion and future life. Theocracy is opposite to Secularism, a
    ‘religious State’ called theocratic state.

    55: What is the difference among ‘Partition of Bengal’ and ‘Division of Bengal’ and
    ‘Emergence of Bangladesh’?
    Partition of Bengal occurred in 1905 under Lord Curzon, in which Bengal was
    divided in two provinces-East Bengal and West Bengal. This Partition was annulled
    in 1911 and the British government reunited Bengal province this incident known as
    ‘Annulment of Partition of Bengal’. Division of Bengal took place in 1947 under
    Radcliff Award when Bengal a large province of British India divided between
    Pakistan and India. East Bengal came to Pakistan and West Bengal went to India.
    Then in 1971 East Bengal was separated from Pakistan and achieved a statues of
    separate country named as ‘Bangladesh’ and it is called 'Emergence of
    Bangladesh’or ‘Fall of Dhaka’

    56: What is difference between Prime Minister and Chief Minister?
    Prime Minister is head of the federal government and Chief Minister is head of the
    provincial government.

    57: What was Achhut Community?
    Achhut Community is a term which refers to all the untouchables, lower class
    communities and Pariahs. They were highly suppressed and deprived peoples of the
    subcontinent. Brahmans and peoples of higher class had been exploiting them since
    long. It was generally perceived that they have lot of duties but no rights.

    58: What is the difference between the creation of Israel and creation of Pakistan or
    what is the difference between ideology of Pakistan and ideology of Israel?
    There are a number of differences between the emergence of Israel and Pakistan.
    Pakistan was the result of a legitimate political struggle but Israel came into being
    through conspiracies, collusions, hidden plots, manipulations and by usurpation of
    the land and rights of the residents of the land of Palestine. The Muslims were in
    majority in all the areas which later became the parts of the state of Pakistan but
    today which is Israel even in that area Jews were in minority and local people were
    forced out of their homes and Jews were brought there from all over the world to
    create a numerical majority. The creation of Israel is the worst example of the
    usurpation of the rights of the hapless people and the creation of Pakistan is the best
    example of the legitimate political struggle for the rights of a group of people who
    takes inspiration from the same source which is Islam. Ideology of Pakistan was
    based on the just demands and legitimate rights of the peoples of the subcontinent
    but ideology of Israel was based on conspiracies, collusions, hidden plots,
    manipulations and on the idea of usurpation of the land and rights of the residents
    of the land of Palestine.

    59: Why did Sir Syed Ahmad Khan started Aligarh Movement?

    The purpose of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s Aligarh Movement was to create awareness
    among the Muslims about their separate identity, to warn them of the Hindu
    designs and plots hatched to subjugate the Muslims, and to make the British accept
    and treat the Muslims as a separate nation. As he was a great well-wisher of the
    Muslims, so he thought Aligarh Movement a practical way to protect the Muslims’
    interests in the subcontinent. Given the conflicting interests, if Hindus and Muslims
    had been together after 1857, there would have been civil war in the subcontinent
    and the resultant destruction and dejection. Giving them their separate status and
    separate domain to work for their prosperity was the only solution to the
    complicated situation of the subcontinent. This was the real purpose of the Aligarh
    Movement and Sir Syed Ahmad Khan effectively drove the Movement towards
    success.


    60: What were the ideas of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan about religion?
    Sir Syed Ahmad Khan stood for a rational approach towards religion. He was not in
    the favour of blindly following the religious injunctions. He wanted the Muslims to
    develop thorough understanding of the religious injunctions and then follow these
    injunctions. He was of the view that man was not created for religion but religion
    was created for man. He argued that revealed truth could best be understood
    through reasons. The revelation of physical sciences could not be ignored in the
    understanding of religion. He was of the view that there could be no contradiction
    between the word of God (revealed truth) and work of God (the laws of physical
    science and phenomenon of nature). Same rational approach he used in explaining
    the creation of Angels (Malaika). He had considerable knowledge of the religion.
    Had he not been well-versed with knowledge of the religion he would not have been
    able to write a book on the life of the Last Prophet of God.


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