In which chronic disease, Pakistani people show more denial or experience anxiety/depression.
In a case control study included in this review, research was carried on women suffering with depression in two hospitals of Karachi, it was found that the odds of patients being married for more than 5 years were more than the odds for controls (OR = 2.24; CI = 1.87, 3.68). Moreover, considering very much satisfied as the reference category, the odds of patients who were just satisfied (OR = 2.24; CI = 2.1, 5.91) or not satisfied with their married life (OR = 19.65; CI = 3.56, 150.2) were more than the odds for controls.
In another case control study conducted to find out association of various reproductive rights, domestic violence and marital rape with depression among Pakistani women, it was revealed that age less than 18years at marriage (OR 2.00; 95%; CI = 1.07, 3.7) and decision for marriage by parents (OR 3.51; 95% CI =1.67, 7.37) could also contribute to depression among women in Pakistan.
Both the above studies showed that the odds of patients spending less than or equal to 3 hours per day with their spouses were more than those for controls (OR = 2.33;CI = 1.34, 4.08). While in the same connection, it was found that frequency of intercourse ≤ 2 times per week(OR 1.85; 95%; CI = 1.06, 3.22) and marital rape (OR3.03; 95%; CI = 1.50, 6.11) were also associated with depression among women.
Interestingly, one of the studies that was conducted to identify social factors associated with chronic depression among women in rural Pakistan, it was also revealed that not being married could also be a cause of chronic depression among women.
These results indicate the social set-up of the country in which life of a woman is closely dependent on marriage and husband’s temperament. Social security and women’s prosperity mostly depend on successful marital life. Any setbacks in women’s relationship with spouse put her in a situation of insecurity and miserable dependence resulting in onset of depression and anxiety. Moreover, lack of decision-making power in male dominant society also lead to curbed emotions ending in deterioration of mental state.