What are the types of sampling design? Explain each type.
Types of sampling design in Research Methodology
There are different types of sample designs based on two factors viz., the representation basis and the element selection technique. On the representation basis, the sample may be probability sampling or it may be non-probability sampling. Probability sampling is based on the concept of random selection, whereas non-probability sampling is ‘non-random’ sampling. On element selection basis, the sample may be either unrestricted or restricted. When each sample element is drawn individually from the population at large, then the sample so drawn is known as ‘unrestricted sample’, whereas all other forms of sampling are covered under the term ‘restricted sampling’. The following chart exhibits the sample designs as explained above.
Thus, sample designs are basically of two types viz.,
We take up these two designs separately.
CHART SHOWING BASIC SAMPLING DESIGNS Reff
A right of a buyer to rescind a contract after an agreed time period is known as:
Khiyar e Tayin
Khiyar al Ruhya
Khiyar e Wasf
Khiyar e Aib
Khiyar-e-Shart (Optional condition): At the time of sale Buyer or Seller can put a condition that he has an option to rescind the sale within the specific 4 days. This option is called Khiyar-e-Shart. Specification of the days is necessary for this Khiyar. Within this period, he has the right to rescind/dissolve the sale without any reason. If the buyer puts the condition, it is called Khiyar-e-Mushtari (option of buyer) and when put by the seller, it is called Khiyar-e-Bai (option of seller). This Khiyar is not transferred to heirs.
Khiyar-e-Roiyyat (Option of inspecting goods): Where the goods can be returned after inspection. This applies automatically to all contracts. Eg. ‘A’ buys machinery from ‘B’ without seeing. However, ‘A’ has the option to return the machinery after inspection.
Khiyar-e-Aib (Option of defect): Where the goods can be returned if found defective. It is the responsibility of the seller to supply goods free of error/defect or point out the defect to the buyer. No way is he allowed to cover the defect of the goods which constitutes as fraud. In one of the hadiths, Prophet has stated “He is not amongst us who indulges in fraud.” Therefore the buyer has the right to return the good in case of a defect which is considered a defect in the market and which depreciates the value of the goods. Eg. ‘A’ buys batteries from ‘B’. However, ‘A’ has the option to return them to ‘B’ if the batteries are found to be defective or not in working condition.
Khiyar-e-Wasf (Option of quality): Where the goods are sold by specifying a certain quality by the Seller but which is absent in the goods. Eg. ‘A’ buys a car from ‘B’ who has specified automatic transmission of the car. However when ‘A’ uses the car, he finds the transmission to be manual. Therefore he can return the car to ‘B’ in the absence of a specific quality.
Khiyar-e-Ghaban (Option of price): Where the seller sells the goods at a price which is far expensive than the market price, a Buyer has the right to return it to the seller. Eg. a Parker pen is sold to ‘A’ by ‘B’ at a price of Rs.500/-. However after the sale, ‘A’ discovers its market price to be Rs.250/-, he has the option to return the pen to ‘B’.
Iqala (Recession of Contract): Where parties freely consent to rescind the contract i.e. each party will give back the consideration received by it.
Neither the buyer nor the seller has the sole right to rescind the contract after execution of a contract. Often the buyer wants to rescind the contract after buying goods. In this case, it is necessary that he gets the seller’s consent. Therefore this mutual agreement between buyer and seller to rescind the contract is called Iqala.
In one of the hadiths, Prophet has stated “He who does the Iqala (rescinding of the contract) with a Muslim who is not happy with his transaction, Allah will forgive his sins on the Day of Judgment.”
However, it may be noted that the price of the goods being returned under Iqala will remain unchanged.
Effect on third Parties: Iqala is treated as a new sale as if a new contract is entered into between the parties rescinding the original contract.
Source: Dr. Muhammad Imran Ashraf Usmani, Meezan Bank’s Guide to Islamic Banking.
therapies should be used in forensic settings or not?
From the ‘nothing works’ maxim of the 1970s to evidence-based interventions to challenge recidivism and promote pro-social behavior, psychological therapy has played an important role in rehabilitation and risk reduction within forensic settings in recent years. And yet the typical group therapy model isn’t always the appropriate path to take. In this important new book, the aims and effectiveness of individual therapies within forensic settings, both old and new, are assessed and discussed. Including contributions from authors based in the UK, North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand, a broad range of therapies are covered, including Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Mentalisation Based Therapy, Schema Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Compassion Focussed Therapy. Each chapter provides: an assessment of the evidence base for effectiveness; the adaptations required in a forensic setting; whether the therapy is aimed at recidivism or psychological change; the client or patient characteristics it is aimed at; a case study of the therapy in action. The final section of the book looks at ethical issues, the relationship between individual and group-based treatment, therapist supervision and deciding which therapies and therapists to select. This book is essential reading for probation staff, psychologists, criminal justice and liaison workers and specialist treatment staff. It will also be a valuable resource for any student of forensic or clinical psychology.