What are the features of federation?



  • Features of Federation
    A Federation is a union of government. It has the following features;
    1) Sets of governments:
    Federation comprises two sets of governments, federal and federating governments.
    2) Division of supreme powers:
    The supreme powers are divided on the principle that matters of common interest or of national importance are entrusted to the central government, while local matters and interests are entrusted to the unit governments.
    3) Dual government:
    Federation envisages a union rather than unity. It creates a dual government and not s Unitary one. The federating units preserve their separate, autonomous, distinct entity and exercise supreme and original authority within their spheres of powers. They are not reduced to non-entity as are the administrative units of a Unitary State. They are no mere agents of the central government, and do not exist on its discretion. They have their own separate and autonomous existence, guaranteed by the constitution,on which also depends the existence of the central government.
    4) Sovereignty:
    The State which federate into a union lose their former sovereignty because their union creates a new State which now becomes sovereign.
    5) Federation is made:
    A federation is made, it does not grow.
    6) Written constitution:
    It has a written constitution so as to prevent any doubt or dispute on the distribution of powers between the federal and federating governments. Neither the federal nor the unit government can amend the constitution with a view to redistributing the supreme powers.
    7) Amendment:
    The constitution clearly prescribes the process of amending it. The constitution is supreme. Sovereignty lies with the body or bodies which have the power to amend the constitution.
    8) Permanent union:
    Federation is a permanent union. This feature distinguishes it
    a) from a confederation which is a loose and limited union of State, and
    b) from alliances of sovereign State such as N.A.T.O or the U.N.O


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