Solution:Sr. No. Scenarios Identification 1*5 Justification 3*5 1. Sara during the first year of her life feels pleasure that centers on the mouth. Things such as chewing, sucking, and biting are the sources of pleasure that reduces her anxiety. Oral This occurs during the first year of life and the erogenous zone during this stage is the mouth. At this stage, pleasures mainly come from mouth. According to Freud, an adult who is fixated at the early oral stage will engage in abundance of oral activities such as eating, drinking, or smoking. This person also will engage in activities that are symbolically equivalent to those oral activities such as collecting things, being a good listener etc. 2. During second year of life, Shazia feels pleasure on bowel and bladder elimination. The control she learns to exert over her bodily functions is manifested in toilet-training. Anal It starts during the second year of life, and the erogenous zone is the anus- buttocks region. It is the stage when the child has to gain control over his physiological processes so that they function in accordance with the demands of the society i.e. the child must be toilet trained. Fixation at this stage may result in physical problems. 3. Ali during the age span of 3 to 5 years feels pleasure for the genitals and coping with incestuous sexual feelings for his mother. He wants to possess his mother exclusively and get rid of his father to enable him to do so. On the other hand, Sana during 3 to 5 years of her age feels sexual attraction towards her father and hatred feelings towards her mother. Phallic This starts from the third year of life to about fifth year, and the erogenous area are the genital area. This is one of the most complicated and controversial of Freud’s stages. It is the stage of Oedipus and Electra complexes, the resolution of which has profound influence on an adult’s life. The male child experiences the Oedipus complex and the female experience Electra complex. 4. At the fifth to twelfth years of age, Ahmad feels that his sexuality is repressed into unconscious and he started focusing to identify himself with the same sex parent and interacts with same sex peers. Latency It lasts from about sixth year to about twelfth year. Here the sexual interests are displaced to substitute activities such as learning, athletics, and peer group activities. 5. When Rashid reached at the age of puberty, he feels that he reaches the physical sexual maturity and the genitals become the primary focus of pleasurable sensations, which he seeks to satisfy in the heterosexual relationships. Genital It is the final stage of development that occurs following puberty. It is the time at which the person emerges from pre genital stages as the adults as he/ she destined to become. Now the child has become a socialized adult with heterosexual interests leading to marriage and child- rearing. If, however, the experiences during the pre-genital stages cause fixation, they will manifests themselves throughout one’s adult life.
What are the reasons behind Lucknow Pact?
Arooj Chaudhry last edited by
- Reasons for the Lucknow Pact
The main reasons for the Lucknow Pact are as follows:
- The All-India Muslim League came into existence as a moderate organization with its basic aim is to establish friendly relations with the British Crown. But, the Muslim Leadership decided to change its stance due to the decision made by the British Government to anul the partition of Bengal.
- A new group of Muslim leaders joined the Muslim League with a much different view than their predecessors. The Muslims made hostile to the British due to the indifferent policy of England towards the Caliph of Turkey as the Caliph was regarded as the religious head of the Muslims all over world.
- At the end of the war, Lord Chelmsford had invited suggestions from the Indians for post world war 1 reforms. So, naturally Muslim League which was on the sidelines of the country politics by that time would like to come ahead to get a better share in the expected giveaways of reforms.
- Reasons for the Lucknow Pact