Question No. 1: Create a Lesson plan for a subject of 8th grade. Select topic and subject of your own choice.
2.Topic: Life and Living things
3.Grade level: 8Th
By the end of the lecture students will be able to know more about life and living things.
By the end of the lecture students will know about the organs and their functions in their bodies.
5.Rationale: students should know about life process of living things including humans and animals. How their organ system work.
6.Resources: Pictures of cells of animals, plants and human organs and microscope.
7.Procedure: Firstly the teacher and students will greet each other and then she will ask some questions to her students about plants and animals.
1: Do you like animals?
2: Which is your favorite animal?
3: Can you tell me something about your pet?
4: Do you about the life process of your pet?
Then teacher will start her lecture via dialectic method along with formative assessment. So, today we are going to learn about life and living things.
What is life?
How living things survive?
Life: Process of act, react, evaluate and evolves through growth.
Living things: they can survive by feed, oxygen, move, respond and sense.
What is cell?
All living things are made up of one or more cells. Some are unicellular some are multicellular.
They are microscopic means they are very tiny so they can only be seen microscope.
Then the teacher will show some pictures of cells after giving them some info about microscope.
Plant and animal cells have so many similarities.
They take in the food, release energy, get rid of waste, grow and reproduce.
Plants have chloroplasts (chemical which enables green plants to use sun’s energy to make food during photosynthesis.
What make plants and animals similar?
• Nucleus (The control center of the cell).
•Cytoplasm ( Jelly-like substance which is fluid)
•Cell membrane (Thin skin outside the cell)
•Cell wall (firm coating outside cell membrane)
•Vacuole (Large space in middle of the cell).
Formative Assessment will be carried along with.
1: animal and plant cells have similarities?
2: Which is called control center of the cell?
3.What the chloroplasts contain?
Then the teacher will move to next topic which is Human organs, tissues and cells.
What is tissue?
A group of similar cells doing same job is called tissue. Different tissues are combining to make an organ.
We have so many organs in our body.
For example: lungs, liver, heart, stomach, brain, eyes, ears and tongue.
1: How they work?
2: What is their use?
•Eyes (sense of sight)
•Ears (sense of hearing)
•Brain (sense to think)
•Tongue (sense to taste)
What is organ system?
Organs work together to form organ system.
Types of organ system
•Breathing system – exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.
•Digestive system – breaks down food in molecules and absorb in blood.
•Circulatory system – transport substance to whole body.
•Excretory system – get rid of poisonous substance.
•Nervous system – carries message around the body.
Keeping the students engaged to the topic teacher will keep asking questions to her students.
8. Assignment or Homework:
Homework: Write five points on how the body organ work and their uses.
9.Assessment: A summative assessment of the topic includes:
oMultiple choice questions (5)
•Label the diagram (5)
•Two Short questions (2) and Three of (1)
- Time allotted:30 minutes
What is language diversity?
Every child has his own first language. Some have Punjabi as their first language, some have Pashto, and some have balochi etc. Then there comes a second language, some children learn English as their second language while others learn it as a foreign language. So language diversity is definitely present in our classrooms. If most of the books are written in a foreign language then how it may be taught? Students are not able to understand science concepts; the problem is that they do not understand the language in which those concepts are presented. To teach the students language you need to be bilingual, (bilingual means that if you are teaching them English and they know Urdu language, then you need to use both Urdu and English language in class). The research says that this bilingual mood may be ineffective for young children. So another model was presented. That is known as immersion model. It means that you immerse the students in the new situation of language. This model says that if you are going to teach the students Urdu language then you should not talk to them in their first language. When you will use Urdu language in the class they will listen and try to speak in Urdu. As Vygotsky says: “Language plays an important role in learning”. To know language diversity is important and to address it is more important.
Being a teacher, which strategies will you use to overcome language diversity in your classroom?
Note: Write any eight strategies.
- Avoid forcing pupils to speak up immediately.
If you want to teach students a new language. Then you must not force them to get
immediately to that language. Give them time to think.
2. Give them some print material.
The second strategy that is used is to give them some written/print material. When a child is going to learn a second language, then a child comprehends more on reading material. So if you are providing them with reading material then actually you are facilitating them to understand certain thing and also proving them with vocabulary.
- Try to talk individually to the students.
There is language diversity in your class in terms of first language of the students and
their language ability. When you are addressing the class as a whole then probably
students are not going to develop their language ability. You must teach them on one to one basis.
- Start lesson with simple questions having ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer.
It doesn’t mean that students are learning only yes or no in the language but actually
when you are asking those questions, they are listening to the whole question and they are focusing on its vocabulary. They will learn how to ask questions and secondly, they will develop confidence in them.
- If possible, use satisfactory or unsatisfactory grading.
Grade the students with satisfactory or unsatisfactory instead of ‘fail’ because the word ‘fail’ has a negative effect on the learning of the students. When children come up to a certain level by improvement then use the grading by pass or fail or use the grades A, B or C etc.
6.Connect with parents and community
Schools are a central part of the community, and should reflect and celebrate its
diversity.Communicate your goals for diversity in the classroom to parents. Ask if they have any questions or concerns, and then listen. Invite them to identify areas in the curriculum or in the school culture that they feel could benefit from more of a focus on diversity.
- Get to know your students
All the students in your school are unique individuals, so use that fact to build a diverse and inclusive school culture.Take the time to learn about your students: Where do they come from? What kind of social-economic situation do they live in, broadly speaking? Are they meeting academic achievement standards, or are they struggling?
- Meet diverse learning needs
Diversity goes beyond just measurable factors like ethnicity, social-economic status or gender. It also extends to the way that students learn in the classroom — whether that’s through an accelerated learning course or with supports for learning disabilities.
Uniform standards can’t apply to a diverse classroom, so start working with your teachers to establish different approaches for students with different learning needs.