PAK 301 short subjective Questions
1: What is ideology?
IDEOLOGY is a set of beliefs, values and ideals of a group and a nation.
2: What is the Ideology of Pakistan?
Ideology of Pakistan sought its roots from the religion of Islam. It basically means
that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to
live according to their faith and creed based on the Islamic principles. They should
have all the resources at their disposal to prosper and to enhance Islamic culture
and civilization without any fear of being dominated by an unsympathetic Hindu
3: What is Two Nation Theory?
Two Nation Theory means that there were two major nations in the British India.
Both the nations were different and distinct from each other with regard to their
culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and
nomenclature, sense of values and proportions, legal laws and moral codes, customs
and calendars, history and tradition, in short they had their own distinct outlook on
life and of life, so they would have their separate homelands
4: What was the Khilafat Movement/Tehrik-i-Khilafat?
The Khilafat movement was a religio-political movement launched by the Muslims
of British India for the retention of the Ottoman Caliphate and for not handing over
the control of Muslims’ holy places to non-Muslims.
5: What was the Objectives Resolution?
The Objectives Resolution was the first constitutional document that proved
‘foundation’ of the constitutional developments in Pakistan. It provided parameters
and sublime principles to the legislators. It made the constitution-making process
easy task setting some particular objectives before them that would be acceptable to
the people of Pakistan
6: What is foreign policy?
Foreign policy usually refers to as the general principles by which a state governs its
reaction to the international environment and its interaction with other states7: RCD and ECO?
RCD and ECO Pakistan, Iran and Turkey signed Regional Cooperation for
Development (RCD) in July 1964. It worked for economic development till 1985. As
it fell short of expectations and could not meet the goals set forth before it, so it was
renamed as Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). Later on, Afghanistan and
five Central Asian Republics, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan,
Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan joined it. Now ECO is working for more cooperation
among its members to enhance development level of its members. Hope it will prove
its worth and achieve the goal of development for its members
8: Islam believes in one nation (Ummah) then why Two Nation theory was
propounded for the Muslims of the subcontinent?
Islam creates one Ummah (Nation). In no way it means that all the Muslims of the
world should come together and form one country. Islam believes in justice, peace,
security and welfare of humanity. It exhorts its followers to struggle for the cause of
Justice, peace, security and welfare of humanity. No matter where they are, they
should follow its commands and injunctions. Boundries do not matter in Islam,
what matters complete submission to Allah, following in the footsteps of the Holy
Prophet and continuous struggle for justice and welfare of humanity. Pakistan was
created on the basis of Two Nation theory because the causes for which Islam has
stood since its inception was under threat in the subcontinent. It was not possible for
the Muslims of the subcontinent to struggle freely for Islamic causes. It was in the
fitness of things to propound Two Nation theory to create a separate state for the
Muslims where they can prosper without the fear of unsympathetic majority.
9: What was the purpose of the Two Nation Theory of Sir syed Ahmad khan?
The purpose of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was to create awareness among the Muslims
about their separate identity, to warn them of the Hindu designs and plots hatched
to subjugate the Muslims, and to make the British accept and treat the Muslims as a
separate nation. As he was a great well-wisher of the Muslims, so he thought the
Two Nation Theory as a way to protect the Muslims’ interests in the subcontinent.
Given the conflicting interests, if Hindus and Muslims had been together after 1857,
there would have been civil war in the subcontinent and the resultant destruction
and dejection. Giving them their separate status and separate domain to work for
their prosperity was the only solution to the complicated situation of the
subcontinent. This was the real idea behind the Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s struggle.
10: What was Hindi-Urdu controversy?
During the last days of the Muslim rule, Urdu emerged as the most common
language of the northwestern provinces of India. It was declared the official
language, and all official records were written in this language. In 1867, some
prominent Hindus started a movement in Banaras in which they demanded the
replacement of Urdu with Hindi, and the Persian script with the Deva Nagri script,
as the court language in the northwestern provinces. The reason for opposing Urdu
was that the language was written in Persian script, which was similar to the Arabic
script, and Arabic was the language of the Quran, the Holy Book of the Muslims. The movement grew quickly and within a few months spread throughout the Hindu
population of the northwestern provinces of India. The headquarters of this
movement were in Allahabad. This situation provoked the Muslims to come out in
order to protect the importance of the Urdu language. The opposition by the Hindus
towards the Urdu language made it clear to the Muslims of the region that Hindus
were not ready to tolerate the culture and traditions of the Muslims. The Urdu-
Hindi controversy had a great effect on the life of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. Before this
event he had been a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity and was of the opinion
that the “two nations are like two eyes of the beautiful bride, India”. But this
movement completely altered his point of view. He put forward the Two-Nation
Theory, predicting that the differences between the two groups would increase with
the passage of time and the two communities would not join together in anything
11: What was Swaraj (self-rule)?
Swaraj was meant that India should be ruled by Indians not by the Britains. It was
an objective to get the Britain leave the Indian subcontinent and establish a
government led by the Indians. In other words it was meant independence for India.
12: What kind of disagreement had Jinnah with Gandhi on the issue of Swaraj (self-
Gandhi wanted the type of Swaraj that was awarded by the British to its other
colonies in which there were democratic governments (government by the majority).
Quaid-e-Azam was opposed to the kind of setup. He wanted self-rule suitable to
India and with due safeguards for the minorities. As the government by the
majority was meant Hindu Raj in the subcontinent. Quaid-e-Azam was against the
13: What was ‘Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam’?
Some leading and sincere Muslim leaders picked up the incentive in order to lesson
the influence of the Hindu and Christian missionaries and decided to set up
Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam on September 24, 1884 in a mosque known as Masjid
Bakan Khan inside Mochi Gate, Lahore, where nearly 250 Muslims decided to set
up the Anjuman for the educational guidance of the Muslims of the Punjab.
14: What was Moplah Revolt?
Moplahs were the descendents of the Arab Muslims settled in the Sub-Continent
even before the arrival of Muhammad Bin Qasim. In August 1921, at Malabar
Coast, near Kalicut, they revolted against Hindu landlords. Hindus feudal lords of
that area with the collusion of the British managed to transfer large tracts of
agricultural land to their name and this act antagonized the local Muslims who were
poor peasants. These suffering poor peasant Muslims started an armed revolt
against the local landlords and the government. The government resorted to
repressive measures which resulted into deaths of thousands of Moplahs. It is called
15: What was ‘Indian Home Rule League’?
On April 23, 1916 Bal Gangadhar Tilak formed The Home Rule League in Bombay.
Joseph Baptista became President and N.C. Kelkar Secretary of Tilak’s Home Rule
League which forestalled that of Mrs. Besant. Six months later Mrs. Annie Besant
founded the league in Madras. "Dr. Besant started the Home Rule League in India
for obtaining the freedom of the country and reviving the country’s glorious cultural
heritage. The objective of both Home Rule League was to attain ‘self-government
within the British Empire by all constitutional means’, and to educate public
opinion for the same. They were Moderates and against the Liberal Party
Dr. Annie Besant is one of those foreigners who inspired the love of the country
among Indians. She declared in 1918 in her paper ‘New India’, “I love the Indian
people as I love none other, and… My heart and my mind… have long been laid on
the altar of the Motherland”. Annie Besant, born of Irish parents in London on
October 1, 1847, made India her home from November 1893. Dr. Besant started the
Home Rule League in India for obtaining the freedom of the country and reviving
the country’s glorious cultural heritage. She started a paper called "New India”. She
attended the 1914 session of the Indian National Congress and presided over it in
1917. Dr. Besant died in 1933
17: Why were the minorities of Pakistan not interested in separate electorate?
In Pakistan the minorities were in a scattered position and it was too much difficult
for their representative to go to them, listen to their problems and finally solve their
problems. They were only 3 percent of the total population. Moreover, there was no
bias against them in the Muslim society. They had complete independence with
regard to every sphere of life. The experience of separate electorate was not good for
them. That was why they wanted to be the part of the big majority.
18: What was the 2nd constituent Assembly?
Governor General Ghulam Muhammad called a Convention on May 10, 1955 for
the purpose of electing a constituent assembly. All its members were to be elected
indirectly (by the provincial assemblies). In this way, the Second Constituent
Assembly came into existence. The Second Constituent Assembly convened in 1955.
It differed in composition from the First Constituent Assembly because of the
notable reduction of Muslim League members and the presence of a United Front
coalition from East Bengal. In 1956 the Constituent Assembly adopted a
constitution that proclaimed Pakistan as a Islamic republic and contained directives
for the establishment of an Islamic state. It also renamed the Constituent Assembly
the Legislative Assembly
19: What were some “weak aspects” of the western culture which Dr. Allama Iqbal
knew at that time?
There are a number of weak aspects of the western culture that were observed by
Allama Iqbal i.e. separation of state and religion, territorial nationalism,
deteriorating moral standards etc.20: Who was Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi?
Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi (Hazrat Mujadid Alf Sani) was a great saint and mystic of
the Naqishbandi order. He challenged the might of Akbar, the great Mughal
emperor, to re-establish the glory of Islam which had been greatly threatened by the
anti-Islamic trends of Akbar.
21: What were the circumstances that led to the Lucknow Pact?
Important developments occurred during the first decade of the 20th century like
annulment of the Partition of Bengal and Western aggression against Muslim
countries, Balkan wars, Libya-Italy war, demolition of the mosque in Kawnpur
(1913), etc. weakened the Muslims’ faith in the British. This led to a major drift in
the Muslim League’s policy. In 1913, the League changed its goals: 1: Self
government under the British Crown keeping in view the peculiar conditions in
India; 2: Good relations with other communities; 3: Cooperation with any party
working for similar goals. This change brought the ML and the Congress closer. In
this way the era of cooperation between Hindus and Muslims set in. The role of the
Quaid-i-Azam is highly noteworthy to bring the Congress and the Muslim League to
the table. All these developments led to the conclusion of the Lackow Pact.
22: what is the impact of Aligarh movement on today’s Pakistan?
Majority of the leadership of Pakistan Movement was the product of Aligarh
Movement. All India Muslim League was also created from one of the different
platforms of Aligarh Movement. Emergence of Pakistan was the result of the efforts
of the Aligarh Movement. Aligarh Movement is the best example for all of us today
to learn how we can create dedicated and sincere leadership by the power of
knowledge and how we can create a movement for the welfare of the Muslims of
23: What was SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan?
Scientific Society was an organization that was established by Sir Syed Ahmad
Khan in Ghazi Pur. The purpose of this society was to create a scientific
temperament among the Indians in general and the Muslims in particular and to
make the Western knowledge available to Indians in their native languages. The
society performed its job efficiently. Under this society the books of science, history
and literature were translated into native languages because, according the concept
of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, it was impossible to spread the scientific knowledge
amongst the Indians in general and the Muslims in particular till the scientific
knowledge which was available in English would be made available to the Indians in
their native languages.
24: How did ALIGARH MOVMENT play a SCIENTIFIC ROLE?
Aligarh Movement played important role in scientific field by establishing different
institutions which worked for the spread of scientific knowledge among the Indians.
Prominent among those institutions was Scientific Society. The purpose of this
society was to create a scientific temperament among the Indians in general and the Muslims in particular and to make the Western knowledge available to Indians in
their native languages. The society performed its job efficiently. Under this society
the books of science, history and literature were translated into native languages.
25: As British were against the Muslim so did they try to create any obstacle in the
way of Aligarh Movement?
The British Government was in favor of modernization amongst the Muslims and
Aligarh Movement was striving to spread modern knowledge amongst the Muslims.
The British did not create any obstacle in the way of Aligarh Movement which was
working for educational and political development of the Muslims.
26: what is Charismatic Leadership?
Charisma is a rare personal quality attributed to leaders who arouse fervent
popular devotion and enthusiasm or personal magnetism or charm. Charismatic
leader is a leader who possesses these traits and with the help of these qualities he
inspires the masses to follow him and his program. This kind of leadership can
bring revolutionary changes.
27: What are extra-constitutional means?
Extra-constitutional means are those means which can not be justified under the
prevalent constitution and are in violation of constitution.
28: What is agitational politics and prejudice?
Agitational politics is a type of politics in which more and more protests and
demonstrations are used to achieve political objectives. Prejudice means: 1: An
adverse judgment or opinion formed beforehand or without knowledge or
examination of the facts. 2: The act or state of holding unreasonable preconceived
judgments or convictions. 3: Irrational suspicion or hatred of a particular group,
race, or religion. 4: Detriment or injury caused to a person by the preconceived,
unfavorable conviction of another or others.
29: If British Government was in favour of Indian Muslims’ modernization then
how Hindu community came closer to the British Government rather than
After the War of Independence of 1857 the Hindus immediately adapted themselves
to the changed rulers and environment. They started learning English and modern
knowledge. On the other the Muslims refused to learn English and modern
knowledge which was available in English. The blame of the War of Independence
of 1857 fell on the Muslims. So it was natural for the British to co-opt the Hindus.
The British thought that as the Muslims had been the rulers of the subcontinent
prior to the British and they (Muslims) wanted to regain the control of the
subcontinent and the War of Independence of 1857 was started by the Muslims to
achieve that object. These were the reason which resulted into British-Hindu
collusion. The British were of the opinion that the narrow-mindedness of the
Muslims was the real cause of the problem so they if not supported but
countenanced the Muslims thrust towards modernization.
30: what was main cause of clash between Jinnah and Nehru on which Jinnah left
The Congress had become explicitly a Hindu organization and had started working
openly for the interests of the Hindus. This was the major reason that had convinced
Mr. Jinnah to leave the Congress.
31: Why and when did the British bestow the title of “Sir” upon the Sir Syed
It was the tradition of the British to award the title of ‘Sir’ upon the people with
distinction. When Syed Ahmed Khan visited London in 1869-70, the title of ‘Sir’
was bestowed upon Syed Ahmed Khan, which entitled him to prefix his name with
‘Sir’. Thence he became “Sir Syed Ahmed Khan”.
32: What is the difference between Aligrah Movement and Khilafat Movement?
Aligarh Movement and Khilafat Movement were different movements. Aligarh
Movement was launched for the educational, political, social and religious uplift of
the Muslims while Khilafat Movement was launched to protect the Ottoman
Empire, Institution of Khilafat and the Muslim holy places
33: Did Sir Syed Ahmed Khan have any enmity with ULEMA?
Sir Syed had no ill will or feelings against any Ulema rather he wanted the Ulemas
not to reject modern knowledge which was available in English because of their
hatred against the British. He wanted them to work for the uplift of the Muslims by
acquiring modern knowledge and also urged the Muslims to seek modern
34: What was the ‘Day of Deliverance’?
In protest against the policy of the British government over India regarding World
War II, all the Congress Ministries resigned till October 22, 1939 and All India
Muslim League decided to celebrate this development. So it was decided to celebrate
December 22, 1939 as ‘Day of Deliverance’. Deliverance was meant to be deliverance
from the oppressive policies of the Congress Ministries.
35: What was Jallianwala Bagh incident of 1919?
In April 1919, a number of Indians gathered in Jallianwala Bagh to protest against
the brutal policies of the British government. General Duiyer ordered the troops,
who were deployed there to suppress any protest, to open fire on the protesting
Indians. As a result 379 people died and thousands injured. It was the most tragic
incident in the history of the subcontinent. This incident is also evident to fact that
the British treated the Indians brutally and ruthlessly.
36: What is the difference between Parliamentary and Presidential system?
In Presidential system the center of political power is the President but in the
parliamentary system power rotates around the prime minister who is head of the government. In the parliamentary system President is only the ceremonial head of
37: What is the difference between Supreme Court & High Court in terms of their
Supreme Court is the highest court which accepts the appeals against the cases
decided by the High Courts. The High Courts are at provincial level while the
Supreme Court functions at the federal level.
38: What is the meaning of ‘Dar-ul-Harb’?
This is meant an area where non-Muslims ruled.
39: In which book did Sir Syed point out the similarities between Islam and
In ‘Tabyin-ul-Kalam’ Sir Syed pointed out the similarities between Islam and
Christianity. Due to lack of resources the work was not finished, but it showed Sir
Syed’s commitment to improve relations of British and Muslims
40: Who was the founder of the 'Indian National Congress’and who was the Indian
Viceroy at that time?
A former member of the Indian Civil Service, Allan Octavian Hume (commonly
known as A. O. Hume), was founder of Congress. He formed Congress in 1885 and
Lord Dufferin, was Viceroy of India at that time, fully supported him in his efforts.
41: What was ‘Doctrine of Lapse’?
In 1848 Governor Dalhousie extended British control even further by applying the
Doctrine of Lapse. According to this doctrine when a ruler dies without a natural
heir the British would annex his land. This doctrine also stipulates that when a
person dies without a natural heir his property would be acquired by the British
42: What was ‘The Loyal Muhammadans of India’?
In 1860 Sir Syed wrote ‘The Loyal Mohammedans of India’. In this work he
defended the Muslims from the British accusation that they were disloyal. He gave a
detailed account of the loyal services rendered by the then Muslims and named
various Muslims who had shown particular loyalty to the British. At the same time
he called on the British to end their hostility towards the Muslim community.
43: What was ‘Tabyin-ul-Kalam’?
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan wrote ‘Tabyin-ul-Kalam’, in which he pointed out the
similarities between Islam and Christianity. Due to lack of resources the work could
not be completed, but it showed Sir Syed’s commitment to improving relations
between Islam and Christianity. This book was another effort on the part of Sir
Syed, in the academic field, to create an atmosphere of good will between the British
(who were Christian) and Indian Muslims.
44: What was ‘Tahdhib-ul-Aklaq’?
Sir Syed did not like conservative attitude of Muslims. He was worried about the
social condition of Muslim and wanted the revival of their social life. He took many
steps for betterment of the Muslims. For this purpose he published the magazine
“Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq” This magzine outlined the ethical aspect of the Muslims life. Sir
Syed criticized the conservative way of life of Muslims and advised them to adopt
new trends in life. This magazine was written to teach the Muslims to adopt the true
teaching of Islam and do not follow the social custom. For this purpose he opened a
number of orphanage houses for Muslims children to save them from the influence
of Christian missionaries.
45: What was difference between Viceroy and Sectary of State in British India?
Viceroy was head of Indian affairs with in India apointed by British government
and Sectary of State was incharge of Indian affairs in London.
46: When the British government created the North West Frontier Province?
In 1900, Lord Curzon created the North West Frontier Province in order to settle
the constant battles that were going on there amongst the tough independent
tribesmen. Before this NWFP was part of the Punjab Province. In 1900 it got the
status of individual province in the British India.
47: What was difference between Viceroy and Governor-General?
The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency
of Fort William. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833. In
1858, India came under the direct control of the British Crown. The title
“Governor-General” applied to his relationship to the British Provinces of India
(Punjab, Bengal, Bombay, Madras, United Provinces, etc.). However, much of
British India was not ruled directly by the government; the territory was divided
into hundreds of nominally sovereign princely states or “native states” whose
relationship was not with the British government, but directly with monarch. To
reflect the Governor-General’s role as representative from the monarch to the
feudal rulers of the princely states, the term Viceroy of India was applied to him;
the title was abandoned when India became independent in 1947. The office of
Governor-General continued to exist until India adopted a republican constitution
48: What was ‘Khutbat-i-Ahmadiya’?
Sir William Muir, a Christian writer, wrote a book with the title ‘Life of
Muhammad’ in which he had made highly objectionable remarks about the Holy
Prophet (PBUH). In return, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan wrote ‘Essays on the Life of
Muhammad (Khutbat-i-Ahmadiya)’ in which he gave proper answers to William
Muir’s remarks in his book.
49: What was Muhammadan Educational Conference?
Muhammadan Educational Conference was set up by Sir Ahmad Khan in
1866.Muhammadan Educational Conference held public meetings in various parts
of the country. It established its sub-committees in all parts of the country. This Conference rendered valuable services in cultivating spirit of action and self-help
among the Muslims. The meetings of this Conference discussed modern techniques
for the development in the field of education and suggested ways and means for the
adoption of modern techniques for the improvement of the educational standard.
Some very eminent scholars and leaders were included in this conference who with
their dedicated approach aroused hope, spirit and enthusiasm among their
brethren. They were Nawab Muhsin-ul-Mulk, Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk, Maulana
Shibli and Maulana Hali who inspired the people with their spiritual, academic and
political acumen and insight.
50: What was the outcome of Gandhi-Jinnah Talks (1944)?
In September 1944, Gandhi Jinnah talks were held at Jinnah’s residence at
Bombay. Rajgopalacharia’s formula and the Lahore Resolution formed the basis of
these talks. In these parleys Jinnah stressed on his famous Two-Nation Theory but
Gandhi refused to accept Muslims as separate nation. Thus these talks remained
51: What was Quit India Movement (1942)?
After the failure of the Cripps Mission, India National Congress started ‘Quit India
Movement’. In this Movement Congress was demanding that British should Quit
India immediately and hand over powers to Indians. The British Government dealt
with this Movement with iron hands. Thousands of Congress workers were killed
arrested or detained. Muslim League remained aloof from this Movement.
52: What was August Offer (1940)?
In the start of Second World War Germany pushed the British troops out of the
European mainland. At this critical juncture Great Britain needed the assistance of
Indians to boost its War efforts. As a result the Viceroy of India Lord Linlithgow in
August 1940 made a constitutional offer to the Indians in which he promised to
expand the Executive Council of the Governor-General, to establish a War Advisory
Council, to give constitutional safeguards to the minorities and to set up a
constitution making body after the War. The Muslim League welcomed the offer
but the Congress rejected it terming it insufficient and unsatisfactory
53: What is the difference between Presidential system of government and
Parliamentary system of government?
In Presidential system the center of political power is the President but in the
parliamentary system power rotates around the prime minister who is head of the
government. In the parliamentary system President is only the ceremonial head of
54: What is the difference between a ‘Theocratic state’ and a ‘Secular state’?
The system under which there is no state religion yet all religions and faiths enjoy
equality of treatment. In the strict literal sense, secularism denotes a system that
rejects belief in God, religion and future life. Theocracy is opposite to Secularism, a
‘religious State’ called theocratic state.
55: What is the difference among ‘Partition of Bengal’ and ‘Division of Bengal’ and
‘Emergence of Bangladesh’?
Partition of Bengal occurred in 1905 under Lord Curzon, in which Bengal was
divided in two provinces-East Bengal and West Bengal. This Partition was annulled
in 1911 and the British government reunited Bengal province this incident known as
‘Annulment of Partition of Bengal’. Division of Bengal took place in 1947 under
Radcliff Award when Bengal a large province of British India divided between
Pakistan and India. East Bengal came to Pakistan and West Bengal went to India.
Then in 1971 East Bengal was separated from Pakistan and achieved a statues of
separate country named as ‘Bangladesh’ and it is called 'Emergence of
Bangladesh’or ‘Fall of Dhaka’
56: What is difference between Prime Minister and Chief Minister?
Prime Minister is head of the federal government and Chief Minister is head of the
57: What was Achhut Community?
Achhut Community is a term which refers to all the untouchables, lower class
communities and Pariahs. They were highly suppressed and deprived peoples of the
subcontinent. Brahmans and peoples of higher class had been exploiting them since
long. It was generally perceived that they have lot of duties but no rights.
58: What is the difference between the creation of Israel and creation of Pakistan or
what is the difference between ideology of Pakistan and ideology of Israel?
There are a number of differences between the emergence of Israel and Pakistan.
Pakistan was the result of a legitimate political struggle but Israel came into being
through conspiracies, collusions, hidden plots, manipulations and by usurpation of
the land and rights of the residents of the land of Palestine. The Muslims were in
majority in all the areas which later became the parts of the state of Pakistan but
today which is Israel even in that area Jews were in minority and local people were
forced out of their homes and Jews were brought there from all over the world to
create a numerical majority. The creation of Israel is the worst example of the
usurpation of the rights of the hapless people and the creation of Pakistan is the best
example of the legitimate political struggle for the rights of a group of people who
takes inspiration from the same source which is Islam. Ideology of Pakistan was
based on the just demands and legitimate rights of the peoples of the subcontinent
but ideology of Israel was based on conspiracies, collusions, hidden plots,
manipulations and on the idea of usurpation of the land and rights of the residents
of the land of Palestine.
59: Why did Sir Syed Ahmad Khan started Aligarh Movement?
The purpose of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s Aligarh Movement was to create awareness
among the Muslims about their separate identity, to warn them of the Hindu
designs and plots hatched to subjugate the Muslims, and to make the British accept
and treat the Muslims as a separate nation. As he was a great well-wisher of the
Muslims, so he thought Aligarh Movement a practical way to protect the Muslims’
interests in the subcontinent. Given the conflicting interests, if Hindus and Muslims
had been together after 1857, there would have been civil war in the subcontinent
and the resultant destruction and dejection. Giving them their separate status and
separate domain to work for their prosperity was the only solution to the
complicated situation of the subcontinent. This was the real purpose of the Aligarh
Movement and Sir Syed Ahmad Khan effectively drove the Movement towards
60: What were the ideas of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan about religion?
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan stood for a rational approach towards religion. He was not in
the favour of blindly following the religious injunctions. He wanted the Muslims to
develop thorough understanding of the religious injunctions and then follow these
injunctions. He was of the view that man was not created for religion but religion
was created for man. He argued that revealed truth could best be understood
through reasons. The revelation of physical sciences could not be ignored in the
understanding of religion. He was of the view that there could be no contradiction
between the word of God (revealed truth) and work of God (the laws of physical
science and phenomenon of nature). Same rational approach he used in explaining
the creation of Angels (Malaika). He had considerable knowledge of the religion.
Had he not been well-versed with knowledge of the religion he would not have been
able to write a book on the life of the Last Prophet of God.