In the Protocol ‘modern biotechnology’ is referred to as the application of fusion of cells beyond the taxonomic family (called ‘in vitro nucleic acid’ techniques) that overcome natural physiological reproductive or recombination barriers and are not techniques used in traditional breeding and selection. The term Living modified organism (LMO) is defined as the processing of any material that is of LMO origin, containing detectable novel combinations of replicable genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology (for instance, flour from genetically modified maize). The LMOs intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing are agricultural commodities from genetically modified crops (http://www.gmo-free-regions.org/glossary.html Accessed 26.11.16.). Although the Protocol did not use the term genetically modified organism, the LMO is almost equivalent to the GMO, which is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism). A more popular name of the GMO is ‘transgenic organism’
SOLVED ENG507 Assignment 1 Solution and Discussion
Phonetics and Phonology (Eng507)
Assignment No. 1
Total Marks: 20
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Q1a. A phoneme is the smallest meaningful unit of sound (therefore, a smallest unit in phonology) in a language. Phoneme is also described as a group of sounds having the ability to change meaning. Write down the phonemic transcription of the following words in RP; also identify and write the number of phonemes each word carries.
Sr. Words Phonemic Transcription in RP Number of Phonemes 1 Six 2 Scissosrs 3 Lamb
Q1b. Bear and bare are spelt differently but pronounced the same, ‘beǝ’ in Received Pronunciation (RP). Make a list of four other pairs of words which are spelt differently but pronounced in the same way. (6+4=10 Marks)
Q2. ‘θ’ and ‘ð’ are the confusing fricatives for English language learners. Transcribe the following words by identifying the correct fricative phoneme in each word.
Sr. Words Transcription 1 breathe 2 healthy 3 bathe 4 clothe 5 teeth 6 loathe 7 smooth 8 earthy 9 loath 10 wreath
Sr. Words Transcription 1 breathe brið 2 healthy hɛlθi 3 bathe beð 4 clothe kloð 5 teeth tiθ 6 loathe loð 7 smooth smuð 8 earthy ərθi 9 loath loθ 10 wreath riθ
Sr. Words Phonemic Transcription in RP Number of Phonemes 1 Six Sics 2 2 Scissosrs n/a 0 3 Lamb Lam 2