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Questions No. 01 10 marks
Consider the search space below, where A is the start node and O is a goal node. Consider the tree as given below, show in table displaying how does BFS (Breadth First Search) work on given tree using simple search algorithm.
Question No 02: (Marks: 10)
You are required to calculate (Step by Step) the worst case time complexity T(n) of the algorithm designed in Question No. 01.
Question No. 02: The step by stem analysis of the algorithm designed in question 1 is as follow,
The time taken by each statement (step) is given as follows,
Step 1: C1 // Execute only 1 time or Constant Time or O (1)
Step 2: C2 // Execute only 1 time or Constant Time or O (1)
Step 3: n -2 // Execute n -2 times
Step 4: n -2 // Execute n -2 times
Step 5: n – 2 // Execute n -2 times
Step 6: C3 // Execute only 1 time or Constant Time or O (1)
Step 7: C4 // Execute only 1 time or Constant Time or O (1)
Step 8: C5 // Execute only 1 time or Constant Time or O (1)
Step 9: C6 // Execute only 1 time or Constant Time or O (1)
Fundamental management function, which involves deciding beforehand, what is to be done.
Process of identifying and grouping work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibilities for the purpose of enabling people to work.
Select right people for the right job. Misfit people should not be inducted.
Output are versatile in nature. So kind of directions, guidance and training required.
Ensuring that activities are going according to the plan, within the budget limit and according to the specification.
Taking appropriate measures to remove all the obstacles which are effecting the pace and progress of the project.
Introducing new ideas and apply new technology.
Who so over are the users? What you have developed, product or facility. Make sure that is as per the requirements.
Q. 2 Solution:
Execution Process Group
Planning Process Group
Monitoring Process Group
Initiating Process Group
Name of Process Group
Execution Process Group
Define process groups and established authority. Who is made responsible and authorized to start the project activity.
Initiating Process Group
Define objectives and plans. Realize that objectives are realistic and achievable. Any value added and ease for the user and organization.
Planning Process Group
All the inputs, equipment, machinery and instruction set all these things to be assembled.
Monitoring Process Group
A process should deduct and identify the obstacles and provide best alternatives.
McGregor’s theory (theory X / theory Y)
Based on stability, certainty and defined structures, processes and policies. Employees are highly monitored to follow the set patterns
This is a one man show where all power resides with the founder. Decisions are taken by the founder which has to be followed by the subordinates
organization exists to serve the individual and where individuals are not servants of the organization. They consist of self-organizes professionals who do not need any supervision
More emphasis is given to completion of tasks and least is given to the hierarchal positions. Employees are provided with autonomy to ensure task completion.
Assignment #01Marks =20
Risk, Return and Investment Decisions Investment decisions are supported by various factors including investor choice of risk appetite, return on investment and most important the market situation that is backed by supply and demand forces. The supply and demand impact is reflected in the market price of securities and guide investors to take a rational decision.Along with market forces, company specific information is also helpful in determining the fair price of an investment. Rational investor s consider both market and company specific information to choose among different investment options. Following information is available for the three stock and you have to choose the two from the three securities to construct a portfolio.
Required:Calculate required rate of return for three stock using SML Equation,if risk free rate of return is 10%.Calculate Fair value of three stocks using Gordon Growth Model.Based on fair price calculation, identify whether the stocks are undervalued or overvalued, justify your answer with reasoning.Considering the above calculations,if you want to construct the portfolio of two stock from the above mentioned three stock., which two stocks you will add in your portfolio and why?NOTE: Formula and complete working is mandatory in each part, provide complete calculations in order to avoid marks deduction.IMPORTANT NOTE: 24 hours extra / grace period after the due date is usually available to overcome uploading difficulties. This extra time should only be used to meet the emergencies and above mentioned due dates should always be treated as final to avoid any inconvenience.
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Required rate of Return of Stock A
r A = r RF + (r M – r RF ) β A
= 10% + (12% - 10%) 0.5
Required rate of Return of Stock B
r B = r RF + (r M – r RF ) β B
= 10% + (13% - 10%) 1.5
Required rate of Return of Stock C
r c = r RF + (r M – r RF ) β C
= 10% + (12.5%-10%) 1
Fair Price of Stock A
Po* = DIV1 / [(r RF + (r M – r RF) A) - g]
= 5/ [(10% + (12%-10%) 0.5)-4%]
5/7%=R s 71.43
Fair Price of Stock B
Po* = DIV1 / [(r RF + (r M – r RF) B) - g]
= 3/ [(10% + (13% - 10%) 1.5) – 6%
= 3/ 8.5%= R s 35.29
Fair Price of Stock C
Po* = DIV1 / [(r RF + (r M – r RF) C) - g]
= 6/ [10% + (12.5%-10%) 1) – 2%
= 6/10.5%= R s.57.14
Stock A is Undervalued as the fair price is more than the market price.
Stock B is Overvalued as the fair price is less than market price.
Stock C is Undervalued as the fair price is more than the market price.
The Stock A and Stock C should be used to construct the portfolio because of two reasons as the beta of Stock A and Stock C is less than Stock B. The required rate of return of Stock A is less than its market rate of return and required rate of return of Stock C is equal to its market rate of return while the required rate of return of Stock B is more than its market rate of return.
Type of Anxiety (1*3)
Ijaz lost his way when he was crossing a Desert. While finding the right direction, a snake showed in front of him. Ijaz got scared and started running in an opposite direction.
This type of anxiety occurs when the threat or danger present is real. The person may have a difficulty handling the situation that generates the anxiety. For e.g., facing a bear in a jungle.
Amir wants to talk to his parents about letting him buy a new mobile phone. However, he is never able to talk to them because he is afraid that his parents might get angry.
In this type of anxiety, the Id is likely to show up in the conscious and ego would not longer be able to control it. The individual realizes that once Id is on the surface, social rejection is the result.
Shahid delivers food from the restaurant to the home. One day when he was very hungry, he wanted to eat some of the food, which he was delivering. However, he did not as he knew that it is morally wrong.
In this type of anxiety, when the threat of being punished is present, the individual faces anxiety. The Id of the individual is expressing itself fully while the superego expresses shame or guilt.
Q2. Describe any two techniques of Psychoanalysis proposed by Freud. (2.5+2.5) Student may describe any two of the following.
Answer: 1. Free Association:
The purpose of free association is to simply collect all the accounts of the client. The client is asked to lie on the couch and the therapist sits behind. The client is asked to speak without censoring anything uninterruptedly. Through this, the thoughts of the unconscious slips in to the conscious. 2. Dream Analysis:
Dreams have been heavily emphasized in psychoanalysis. Freud viewed that dreams are representations of the Id impulses. A therapist interprets the dream by relating it to various unconscious desires and wishes. 3. Transference:
Transference is of two types: positive and negative. Positive transference is when the client relates positively to any positive person in his/her life (therapist, friend). While negative is when the therapists starts relating to the client. 4. Freudian Slip:
Freudian slip is a concept in which the individual wanted to say something but says something else. Freud suggested that these slips are the actual truth that people hold inside themselves. These truths are in the unconscious but slip sometimes in the conscious and are delivered. 5. Humor:
Freud has heavily emphasized on sex and death in his theory. He has related Humor to these two factors as well. Humor is an essential part of your psyche and one cannot understand psyche without realizing the humor the person relates to the most.