• • How did Sir Syed Ahmad Khan manage to create cordial relations between the Muslims and the British? Justify your answer with at least five points. 10 Marks

    1. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established the MAO College which eventually became the Aligarh Muslim University.
    2. He started writing in Urdu from the age of 23 and became a very proficient writer. He was the author of several books including “Monuments of the Great” and “Causes of the Indian Revolt” and discussed the ways in which Muslims should align with the changing scientific and political ideas.
    3. He opposed ignorance, superstitions and evil customs prevalent in Indian Muslim society.
    4. He firmly believed that Muslim society would not progress without the acquisition of western education and science.
    5. He suggested British to appoint Muslims for helping in the administration.

    • Why did the Muslims of Subcontinent start a movement to support Urdu in the 18th century? Justify your answer with at least five points. 5 Marks

    1. To Muslims in northern and western India, Urdu became an integral part of political identity and communal separatism.
    2. The division over the use of Hindi or Urdu would further fuel communal conflict between Muslims and Hindus in India.
    3. The All India Muslim League and the Jamaat-e-Islami projected Urdu as essential for the political and cultural survival of Islamic society in India.
    4. The Urdu movement was a socio-political movement aimed at making Urdu the universal language and symbol of the cultural and political identity of the Muslim communities of the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj.
    5. Sir Syed’s call for the adoption of Urdu as the language of Indian Muslims won extensive support from the Aligarh Movement and Muslim religious activists of the Deobandi and Wahabbi schools.
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