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The moving average method in this case is unable to take into account the seasonality of data provided as it can be seen that It takes the average of last four periods but does not consider the fact that the demand for the product is high in first quarter of each year. Moreover, it is unable to provide the complete forecasts for the rest of quarters except for Q1 of Year 2020, so the quarterly forecast method is suitable in this scenario.
There are a few conditions for enrollment and marking of attendance. Students are required to perform Use Case Testing for the following tasks.
S: Enroll employee
S: Scan fingerprint
S: ID allocated
A: Scan fingerprint
S: Validate fingerprint
S: Attendance marked
A: Password entered
S: Attendance marked
Fingerprint not marked
S: Display message and ask for re-try fingerprint
Fingerprint not marked for specific reason
A: ID and password entered
S: Attendance marked
Invalid Password - 3 times
Process Area: Software Verification Software Verification process area is more concerned with the engineering/programming aspects of the project with the purpose to ensure that the final product is error free and selected work products/components meet their specified requirements. Verification does not
Page | 31 evaluate usefulness of the system instead verification is concerned with whether the system is well-engineered, error-free, and so on. So verification is more concerned with building the product right way. Software verification includes testing, design analysis, inspections and code reviews. The major goals for these process areas are as under:
● Prepare for Verification: Preparation for verification is conducted.
● Verify Selected Work Products: Selected work products are verified against their specified requirements. P.Example of Software Verification Continuing with the same example, QA team will verify that all requirements are being fulfilled and each part of the software is working properly. For example, in this case Sample Requirements
● Admin (Employee) should be able to login
● Employee should be able to register another employee ¡n the organization
● Employee should be able to mark the attendance on daily basis
Figure 1: Continuous Audit Implementation Steps U.Audit Types There are three (3) types of audits and these, along with brief explanation, are as follows:
● First Party Audits: These are often described as internal audits. Someone from the organization itself audits a process to measure compliance and/or effectiveness.
● Second Party Audits: This is an external audit where the audit is being performed on supplier by a customer or by a contracted organization on behalf of a customer with the intention to ensure that the supplier is meeting contract specification.
● Third Party Audit: this is also an external audit and it’s performed by an audit organization independent of supplier-customer relationship. V.Audit Roles and Responsibilities Audit team includes a certified lead auditor who leads the audit activities and a team of 2 to 3 members supporting the lead in performing audit. Each member is equipped with right attitude and skills to measure the process results and performing the process audit to ensure compliance. Further in tough scenarios, domain experts become a part of this team to deal with the technicalities of such scenarios. W.CMMI Appraisals Appraisal is defined as a process to collect, review and analyzes data to measure performance or compliance level. The collected data is then compared with the desired or standard data to identify the gap between the actual and desired, if any with the main purpose of measuring the effectiveness of the framework or process. CMMI appraisals provide ratings that accurately reflect the capability level or maturity level of the processes in use. X.Process Reviews Process reviews are frequently carried out in the organizations to measure the effectiveness of the process and to ensure that it is being completely followed. The frequency of process audit depends upon many factors but usually it’s biannual or quarterly or on need basis. The process reviews also helps in identifying the required actions to improve the process results. Those required action may vary based on the results and it can be related to change/update in process objectives or design, training of stakeholders, technological advancement and many others. Y.Review Policy Every organization has its own review policy but the literature is full of best practices to be followed while conducting review. The fact remains same, the process is useless without review as no environment is static and no requirements are static. The current condition is best described with the word dynamic or constantly changing and so must be the process to get desired results. Through review policy, organizations define what to review and when to review. Z. Bench marking for Process Review There are many common issues the modern era organizations face today but the prospects of those issues or the circumstances might vary based on multiple factors. Bench marking is the referencing to those common problems. For any issue, organization adopts the model of another organization that went through, more or less, same condition and developed a successful solution to it. Adopting the already developed solution after some amendments saves an organization a lot of time and efforts. Besides this, organization can use the best practices, with some modification, available in literature or research journals.
To make multiple copies of DNA, called DNA cloning.
To make large amounts of specific human proteins, for example, human insulin, which can be used to treat people with Type I diabetes.
To genetically modify a bacterium or other cell.
Suppose ABC Software Company is assigned a project by Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) police. The software company has experienced testers in its fleet. The task is to develop an Internet of Things (IoT) based application for traffic monitoring in the capital with solid documentation utilizing incomplete requirement documents. With short deadline, the test cases need to be automated using any of the following two options for improving the quality of the end product.
Justify your selection of either testing technique in the given scenario with logical arguments
Is there any difference between simple random sampling and random sampling? If yes then explain the types of random sampling.
Random sample: every element of the population has a (nonzero) probability of being drawn. Simple random sample (SRS): every element of the population has the same (nonzero) probability of being drawn. SRS is thus a special case of a random sample.