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McGregor’s theory (theory X / theory Y)
Based on stability, certainty and defined structures, processes and policies. Employees are highly monitored to follow the set patterns
This is a one man show where all power resides with the founder. Decisions are taken by the founder which has to be followed by the subordinates
organization exists to serve the individual and where individuals are not servants of the organization. They consist of self-organizes professionals who do not need any supervision
More emphasis is given to completion of tasks and least is given to the hierarchal positions. Employees are provided with autonomy to ensure task completion.
Suppose you are working as a team lead in the software house and a task is assigned to you. The task is to develop two different software applications. One of them is a large-scale industrial software application and the other is small scale software application. As a team lead, you have to decide a development model for this task. Will you use the same development model for both the software applications or use different models for them? Discuss your solution with solid reasoning.
A software project manager is the most important person inside a team who takes the overall responsibilities to manage the software projects and play an important role in the successful completion of the projects. A project manager has to face many difficult situations to accomplish these works. In fact, the job responsibilities of a project manager range from invisible activities like building up team morale to highly visible customer presentations. Most of the managers take responsibility for writing the project proposal, project cost estimation, scheduling, project staffing, software process tailoring, project monitoring and control, software configuration management, risk management, managerial report writing and presentation and interfacing with clients. The task of a project manager are classified into two major types:
Project monitoring and control
Project planning is undertaken immediately after the feasibility study phase and before the starting of the requirement analysis and specification phase. Once a project has been found to be feasible, Software project managers started project planning. Project planning is completed before any development phase starts. Project planning involves estimating several characteristics of a project and then plan the project activities based on these estimations. Project planning is done with most care and attention. A wrong estimation can result in schedule slippage. Schedule delay can cause customer dissatisfaction, which may lead to a project failure. For effective project planning, in addition to a very good knowledge of various estimation techniques, past experience is also very important. During the project planning the project manager performs the following activities:
Project Estimation: Project Size Estimation is the most important parameter based on which all other estimations like cost, duration and effort are made.
Cost Estimation: Total expenses to develop the software product is estimated.
Time Estimation: The total time required to complete the project.
Effort Estimation: The effort needed to complete the project is estimated.
The effectiveness of all later planning activities is dependent on the accuracy of these three estimations.
Scheduling: After completion of estimation of all the project parameters, scheduling for manpower and other resources are done.
Staffing: Team structure and staffing plans are made.
Risk Management: The project manager should identify the unanticipated risks that may occur during project development risk, analysis the damage might cause these risks and take risk reduction plan to cope up with these risks.
Miscellaneous plans: This includes making several other plans such as quality assurance plan, configuration management plan, etc.
The order in which the planning activities are undertaken is shown in the below figure:
Project monitoring and control
Project monitoring and control activities are undertaken once the development activities start. The main focus of project monitoring and control activities is to ensure that the software development proceeds as per plan. This includes checking whether the project is going on as per plan or not if any problem created then the project manager must take necessary action to solve the problem.
Role of a software project manager: There are many roles of a project manager in the development of software.
Lead the team: The project manager must be a good leader who makes a team of different members of various skills and can complete their individual task.
Motivate the team-member: One of the key roles of a software project manager is to encourage team member to work properly for the successful completion of the project.
Tracking the progress: The project manager should keep an eye on the progress of the project. A project manager must track whether the project is going as per plan or not. If any problem arises, then take necessary action to solve the problem. Moreover, check whether the product is developed by maintaining correct coding standards or not.
Liaison: Project manager is the link between the development team and the customer. Project manager analysis the customer requirements and convey it to the development team and keep telling the progress of the project to the customer. Moreover, the project manager checks whether the project is fulfilling the customer requirements or not.
Documenting project report: The project manager prepares the documentation of the project for future purpose. The reports contain detailed features of the product and various techniques. These reports help to maintain and enhance the quality of the project in the future.
Necessary skills of software project manager: A good theoretical knowledge of various project management technique is needed to become a successful project manager, but only theoretical knowledge is not enough. Moreover, a project manager must have good decision-making abilities, good communication skills and the ability to control the team members with keeping a good rapport with them and the ability to get the work done by them. Some skills such as tracking and controlling the progress of the project, customer interaction, good knowledge of estimation techniques and previous experience are needed.
Skills that are the most important to become a successful project manager are given below:
Knowledge of project estimation techniques
Good decision-making abilities at the right time
Previous experience of managing a similar type of projects
Good communication skill to meet the customer satisfaction
A project manager must encourage all the team members to successfully develop the product
He must know the various type of risks that may occur and the solution for these problems
Principles of Management (MGT503) FALL 2020 Due Date: 8th February, 2021 Total Marks: 20
Objective of the activity: The objective of this assignment is to make students able to recognize
different organizational structures along with the contingency factors impacting organizations during period of global crises such as COVID 19.
After attempting this activity, students will be able to:
Comprehend basic contingency factors surrounding organizations.
Come up with the strategies which organization should adopt in future to work effectively
due to uncertain circumstances.
A new trendy and catchy managerial acronym now days is “VUCA”, stands for volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. These are four different types of situations requiring different types of responses. COVID-19 has brought unprecedented challenges for organizations and “VUCA” has become a new normal. The old ritual of dictating work by the top management to the subordinates, and ensuring that all tasks have been finally operated and executed is fading due to prevalent pandemic. This requires a change in strategy, otherwise they would be at disadvantage.
By calling attention to this and other limitations of traditional organizational structures, COVID-19 is speeding up the pace of necessary change. Organizations have been naturally put into situation where they have to modernize, for example, working remotely. Here, those organizations which were previously having less rigid structure have embraced this change easily. However, this sudden need of change has created opportunities to come up with new strategies
and affective ways of doing work.
For the organization which are transitioning from traditional to work remotely/virtually;
What can be appropriate organizational design decisions based on the following contingency factors: (15 Marks)
a) Strategy and structure
c) Environmental uncertainty and structure
2. What crucial points should organizations keep into consideration by going from “new normal” to “back to normal”, when COVID-19 crises fades? (5 Marks)
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Q2. SOLO Taxonomy is a systematic way of describing how a learner’s understanding develops from simple to complex when learning different subjects or tasks. Bloom’s Taxonomy is a set of three hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity. Keeping this in mind, write down any five differences between SOLO Taxonomy and Bloom’s Taxonomy.
Advantages of the SOLO model for evaluation of student learning
There are several advantages of the SOLO model over the Bloom taxonomy in the evaluation of student learning.
* These advantages concern not only item construction and scoring, but incorporate features of the process of evaluation that pay attention to how students learn, and how teachers devise instructional procedures to help students use progressively more complex cognitive processes.
* Unlike the Bloom taxonomy, which tends to be used more by teachers than by students, the SOLO can be taught to students such that they can learn to write progressively more difficult answers or prompts.
* There is a closer parallel to how teachers teach and how students learn.
* Both teachers and students often progress from more surface to deeper constructs and this is mirrored in the four levels of the SOLO taxonomy.
* There is no necessary progression in the manner of teaching or learning in the Bloom taxonomy.
* The levels can be interpreted relative to the proficiency of the students. Six year old students can be taught to derive general principles and suggest hypotheses, though obviously to a different level of abstraction and detail than their older peers. Using the SOLO method, it is relatively easy to construct items to assess such abstractions.
* The SOLO taxonomy not only suggests an item writing methodology, but the same taxonomy can be used to score the items. The marker assesses each response to establish either the number of ideas (one = unistructural; _ two = multistructural), or the degree of interrelatedness (directly related or abstracted to more general principles). This can lead to more dependability of scoring.
* Unlike the experience of some with the Bloom taxonomy it is relatively easy to identify and categorise the SOLO levels.
* Similarly, teachers could be encouraged to use the ‘plus one’ principle when choosing appropriate learning material for students. That is, the teacher can aim to move the student one level higher in the taxonomy by appropriate choice of learning material and instructional sequencing.
Gas chromatography (GC) is used widely in applications involving food analysis. Typical applications pertain to the quantitative and/or qualitative analysis of food composition, natural products, food additives, flavor and aroma components, a variety of transformation products, and contaminants, such as pesticides, fumigants, environmental pollutants, natural toxins, veterinary drugs, and packaging materials. The aim of this article is to give a brief overview of the many uses of GC in food analysis in comparison to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and to mention state-of-the-art GC techniques used in the major applications. Past and current trends are assessed, and anticipated future trends in GC for food applications are predicted. Among the several new techniques being developed, the authors believe that, in food analysis applications, fast-GC/mass spectrometry (MS) will have the most impact in the next decade. Three approaches to fast-GC/MS include low-pressure GC/MS, GC/time-of-flight (TOF)-MS and GC/supersonic molecular beam (SMB)-MS, which are briefly discussed, and their features are compared. Reff