Level of Orientation
Prominent theorists (any two )
Basic assumptions/ideas(any two)
Talcott Parsons Rober K. Merton
1. The general interrelatedness or interdependence of the system’s parts; 2. The existence of “normal” state of affairs, or state of equilibrium, comparable to the normal or healthy state of the organism; and 3. The way that all parts of the system reorganize to bring things back to normal
Karl Marx Max Weber
1. People have number of basic “interests,” things they want and attempt to acquire. Common to all. Nothing specified. 2.Power is the core of social relationships. 3.Values and ideas are seen as weapons used by different groups to advance their own ends rather than as means of defining a whole society’s identity and goals.
Social Exchange/Rational Choice
Micro and Macro
George Homans Peter Blau
1. People more or less act rationally and on the bases of their interests. 2. Rewarding exchange of interactions are repeated. 3. Reward can be basis for rational choice. 4. Continual exchange of actions makes people conditioned. 5. Emergence of patterns of social exchange . 6. Enables sociologists to predict patterns of behavior on both small and large scales.
Interactionism , i. Phenomenology, ii. Ethnomethodology
George Mead Herbert Blumer, i. Alfred Schutz, ii. H. Garfinkel
1. Emphasis on face to face interaction of humans rather than on the working of the social system as an abstract entity. 2. Emphasis on meanings rather than functions i.e. sociology has to be an interpretive science. 3. Emphasis on lived experience rather than an abstracted concept of society. Focus on the way human agents experience regularized patterns of social interaction, and support them.
Question: Explain the ways that your micro-level social world of relations with family and friends is influenced by macro-level structures or cultural influences of the wider environment? 04
The structures and patterns of the macro-level social world help constrain and shape our behavior through “micro” system in which we are involved. This mutual interdependence of individuals’ micro-level social actions and macro-level social structures is particularly important in analyzing recurrent or general patterns of behavior that are widespread throughout society. Such patterns can be analyzed independently of particular individuals in their local contexts.
For example, sociologists or social theorists may be interested in explaining how changing birth rates may be related to the state of the economy or general cultural attitudes toward children, even though individual decisions to have or not to have children will reflect personal choices that are not at all oriented consciously toward trends in birth rates or the overall state of the economy or the culture. Similarly, social theorists may seek to understand patterns of upward or downward socioeconomic mobility in a society without reference to particular individuals who are trying to
“get ahead” or “get by” in terms of their own personal well-being. From the standpoint of particular individuals in their local settings, the overall structures and dominant cultural patterns of a society may be taken as background or context, and their primary focus is the specific situation in which they find themselves. However, to understand society itself, sociological analysis at the macro level must focus on the major institutions of society as well as differences among people such as those based on social class, race/ethnicity, gender, or age. This means that our analyses of major institutional structures must be linked with an understanding of how individuals are stratified into various socioeconomic classes and numerous other categories that distinguish them from one another.
A right of a buyer to rescind a contract after an agreed time period is known as:
Khiyar e Tayin
Khiyar al Ruhya
Khiyar e Wasf
Khiyar e Aib
Khiyar-e-Shart (Optional condition): At the time of sale Buyer or Seller can put a condition that he has an option to rescind the sale within the specific 4 days. This option is called Khiyar-e-Shart. Specification of the days is necessary for this Khiyar. Within this period, he has the right to rescind/dissolve the sale without any reason. If the buyer puts the condition, it is called Khiyar-e-Mushtari (option of buyer) and when put by the seller, it is called Khiyar-e-Bai (option of seller). This Khiyar is not transferred to heirs.
Khiyar-e-Roiyyat (Option of inspecting goods): Where the goods can be returned after inspection. This applies automatically to all contracts. Eg. ‘A’ buys machinery from ‘B’ without seeing. However, ‘A’ has the option to return the machinery after inspection.
Khiyar-e-Aib (Option of defect): Where the goods can be returned if found defective. It is the responsibility of the seller to supply goods free of error/defect or point out the defect to the buyer. No way is he allowed to cover the defect of the goods which constitutes as fraud. In one of the hadiths, Prophet has stated “He is not amongst us who indulges in fraud.” Therefore the buyer has the right to return the good in case of a defect which is considered a defect in the market and which depreciates the value of the goods. Eg. ‘A’ buys batteries from ‘B’. However, ‘A’ has the option to return them to ‘B’ if the batteries are found to be defective or not in working condition.
Khiyar-e-Wasf (Option of quality): Where the goods are sold by specifying a certain quality by the Seller but which is absent in the goods. Eg. ‘A’ buys a car from ‘B’ who has specified automatic transmission of the car. However when ‘A’ uses the car, he finds the transmission to be manual. Therefore he can return the car to ‘B’ in the absence of a specific quality.
Khiyar-e-Ghaban (Option of price): Where the seller sells the goods at a price which is far expensive than the market price, a Buyer has the right to return it to the seller. Eg. a Parker pen is sold to ‘A’ by ‘B’ at a price of Rs.500/-. However after the sale, ‘A’ discovers its market price to be Rs.250/-, he has the option to return the pen to ‘B’.
Iqala (Recession of Contract): Where parties freely consent to rescind the contract i.e. each party will give back the consideration received by it.
Neither the buyer nor the seller has the sole right to rescind the contract after execution of a contract. Often the buyer wants to rescind the contract after buying goods. In this case, it is necessary that he gets the seller’s consent. Therefore this mutual agreement between buyer and seller to rescind the contract is called Iqala.
In one of the hadiths, Prophet has stated “He who does the Iqala (rescinding of the contract) with a Muslim who is not happy with his transaction, Allah will forgive his sins on the Day of Judgment.”
However, it may be noted that the price of the goods being returned under Iqala will remain unchanged.
Effect on third Parties: Iqala is treated as a new sale as if a new contract is entered into between the parties rescinding the original contract.
Source: Dr. Muhammad Imran Ashraf Usmani, Meezan Bank’s Guide to Islamic Banking.
The solution was required in the following manner.
Establish or recalling your understanding of the normative theories.
An analysis of the media system operating in Pakistan was required.
Giving examples by considering/selecting a particular theory/approach.
For example, in the Pakistani context, the social responsibility approach is the most suitable as media is free to exercise. It has been asked to regulate itself through an organizational mechanism to the most. Etc.
A brief overview was required on the feasibility of the approach in the Pakistani context, that whether, it is suitable considering the cultural and political context or not?
More details were required over the peculiar aspect of the system in brief along with examples. For example, the system is in line with democratic norms, media freedom is ensured, Etc.
Keeping in view the normative theories of mass communication, analyze the working of the Pakistani media and state that which media system is in operation in Pakistan? Discuss its viability and highlight the peculiar aspects in detail by giving examples.
Dust is everywhere and everywhere is dust. It will get on and inside your lens. Lenses are manufactured in extremely clean factories, where manufacturers go to great lengths to try to eliminate dust from the environment. Even then, brand-new lenses may have dust between the lens elements.
Dust, however, is not the main enemy. A lens that sits on a shelf in your home for years and collects a thick layer of dust will, obviously, produce image-quality issues. But, a few specs of dust here and there on or inside the lens will have no effect on image quality. A few specs of dust on or inside the lens will have no effect on image quality. That statement was intentionally repeated.
Trying to keep your lenses dust free through continual cleaning may serve to shorten the life of your lens, as you run the risk of scratching the lens surfaces every time you clean the glass.
Remove as much dust and dirt as possible from the lens with a blower or soft bristled brush.
Apply a few drops of lens cleaning solution to a lens tissue or cleaning cloth.
Using a circular motion, gently remove oil, fingerprints, and grime from the lens surface, working from the center outward.
This is only solution making ides, not a complete solution.