• 2) Socio-religious causes
    By rapid spread of Western civilisation in India, a large section of the population was alarmed by it. An act in 1850 changed the Hindu law of inheritance enabling a Hindu who had converted into Charistainity to inherit his ancestral properties. Besides, the missionaries were allowed to make convertions into Charistainity all over India. The people were convinced that the Government was planning to convert Indians into Charistainity.
    The abolition of practices like Sati and female infanticide, and the legislation legalizing widow remarriage, were threats to the established social structure. Even the introduction of railways and telegraph was viewed with suspicion.
    3) Economic causes
    Following are the main economic causes for war of independence;
    1) Exploitation of economic exploitation:

    • India was forced to export cotton, silk at cheap rate to England.
    • forced plantation of Indigo and Tea.
    • Indians had to accept ready made British goods.
    • Indian’s hand made products couldn’t compete with machine made British goods.
    • problem of unemployment increased.
    • India had no agricultural surplus which raised prices of raw materials in India.
      2) Drain of wealth:
      After the Battle of Plassey, British stopped bringing gold to Indai. Raw material was bought in England from the surplus revenues of Bengal and started looting India’s raw materials, resources and wealth. The transfer of wealth from India to England is called Drain of wealth.
      3) Decay of cottage industries and Handicrafts:
    • heavy duties killed Indian cottage industries and Handicrafts.
    • imported British goods worsened thier condition.
    • Export of cotton and silk was ceased.
    • Art of spinning and weaving was killed, creating severe unemployment.
    • Absence of Royal buyers, Princes, Zamindars, etc.
      4) Growing unemploymen:
      Unemployment was continuously increasing.
      **5) Inhuman treatment of Indigo cultivation:
      Forced plantation of Indigo and other crops were destroyed, didn’t follow the orders and cattle were taken away as punishment.
      6) Poverty and famines:
      There were 12 minor famines but British did not bother.
      7 ) Economic decline of peasantry:
      Peasants had to pay high taxes and land revenues.
      8 ) Decline of landed Aristocracy:
      Hereditary landlords and Taluqdars ’ 2000 estates were confiscated(who couldn’t produce evidences of ownership) and auctioned. Merchants and moneylendets bought these estates and exploited tenants.

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