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Diseases affecting live trees could cost billions
According to realists, the pathogen or pathogen that causes the disease is destroying olive trees in Europe, threatening the economy with 20 billion euros.
They have formulated a model for the worst effects of the future pathogen, Zyrella fastidosa. The bacterium has destroyed a large number of olive trees in Italy.
The bacteria spread through insects and now threaten potential harm to olive crops in Spain and Greece.
According to experts, “the disease can lead to costly olive oil, which will ultimately cost consumers.”
Zylila is considered to be an extremely dangerous bacterium, which can pose a serious threat to plants anywhere in the world.
There is currently no cure for this bacterial infection.
In addition to olives, it can affect cherry, almond and plum trees.
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Image caption Infected trees need to be destroyed to prevent bacteria from spreading
In 2013, her strawberries were seen in olive trees in Paglia, southern Italy.
It is spread by sucking insects such as sputum bugs.
The infection affects the tree’s ability to carry water and nutrients to the surface, and the plant slowly dies after withering.
In Italy, the effects of the outbreak have been seen to be very damaging. It is estimated that crop yields have decreased by 60% since the first germ was first exposed in 2013.
Maria Saponari, of the CNR Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection in Italy, says: "The loss of olives has reduced the value of the land and the interest in tourism in the region.
“It has also severely damaged the local economy and agriculture-related professions.”
In addition to Italy, Xylela bacteria has been found in Spain, France and Portugal.
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Image caption Olive trees wither and die after being infected with xylem
To cope with the disease, the affected trees are now being cut down and efforts are being made to reduce plant material content.
In addition, efforts are being made to control the insects that spread the disease.
But if these measures fail, what will be the impact on the economy?
In this new study, researchers have modeled various hypotheses, including what would happen if trees died.
They have compared the sketches of this worst case by replacing them with resistant varieties.
The team has estimates for Italy, Spain and Greece.
Together, the three countries produce 95% of olive oil.
If the infection spreads further in Spain, most of the trees will be affected and die, which could cost up to 17 billion euros over the next 50 years.
The disease could cost Italy more than five billion euros and Greece nearly two billion euros.
But if the infection slows down or plants are planted that are resistant to the disease, the damage will be greatly reduced.
However, the authors of this study believe that it will have an impact on consumers.
Kevin Schneider, head of research at the University of Vienna in the Netherlands, said the “potential impact” would be in the event of a supply shortfall.
“And I think if prices go up, the biggest loser will be consumers.”
Researchers say that although their analysis highlights economic losses, the large-scale tourism and cultural damage from bacteria cannot be ignored.
Dr. Schneider says: "You will surely hear devastating stories about gardens that have been inherited for generations.
"It’s the same garden where his grandfather once worked. So how can you put economic numbers ahead of such losses? The value of cultural heritage will far outweigh the damage we will account for.
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Several steps are being taken to fight bacteria on a scientific basis. These include insect soils, plant borders and genetic analysis of why some plants are more affected by infection than other plants.
Researchers believe that the final eradication of this bacterium will eventually require trees that are resistant to the disease it causes.
Dr Saponari says that “cultivating a crop that is immune or immune-specific is the most promising and environmentally sustainable, sustainable strategy on which the European scientific community is conducting relevant research efforts.”
He said that a sustainable strategy to reduce the incidence of pests is one of the pillars of controlling the disease and in this regard, mechanical eradication of weeds in Bihar is a very effective process.
“Of course, many other pest control strategies are being considered.”
Although two species of olive trees have shown some resistance to the disease, researchers believe more research is needed.
The study was published in the journal Proceedings of the National