BT405: Nano Biotechnology
Assignment No. 1
Due Date: 28 May 2020
“Please prepare an audio introduction file through any available device. Preferably Sound recorder of the Windows”
• Total time of audio introduction will be 5 minutes.
o Course name and code (30 sec) (Very Important)
o Your Introduction (2 minutes)
o Your academic Background (1 minute)
o Views about course (1 minute)
o Expectations about the course (30 sec)
• This assignment carries 10 marks.
• Audio Introduction file should be uploaded on LMS not later than 28 May 2020
DO NOT send the assignment thorough email. Assignments submitted through email will result in no marks.
Instructions for audio recording through Sound recorder of the windows
• Open Windows Search
• Write “Sound recorder” in the search bar and click enter
• Select the program “Sound recorder” Open it and start recording.
• Save the file and send it through the LMS.
This assignment will help you to develop presentation skills and strengthen you to present yourself in front of audience.
Assignment No. 02
BT405 – Nano Biotechnology Total Marks: 10
Due Date: Jan 15, 2020
Please read the following instructions carefully before solving & submitting assignment:
It should be clear that your assignment will not get any credit (zero marks) if:
o The assignment is submitted after due date.
o The submitted assignment does NOT open or file is corrupted.
o The assignment is copied (from other student or ditto copy from handouts or internet).
o Submit your solution within due date. Don’t wait for grace day. Grace Day is given only if there is any problem with LMS on due date. Note that no assignment will be accepted through email if there is any problem on grace day.
Write an answer of given question:
Q: Define carbon nanotube and also write down the properties and applications of carbon nanotube. 
This assignment covers topics # 25-to- topics # 35
Deadline: The Deadline of this assignment is Jan 15, 2020
BT405 GDB 1 Solution and Discussion
The term “biosensor” is short for “biological sensor.” The device is made up of a transducer and a biological element that may be an enzyme, an antibody or a nucleic acid. The bioelement interacts with the analyte being tested and the biological response is converted into an electrical signal by the transducer. Depending on their particular application, biosensors are also known as immunosensors, optrodes, resonant mirrors, chemical canaries, biochips, glucometers and biocomputers. A commonly cited definition of a biosensor is:
“A chemical sensing device in which a biologically derived recognition is coupled to a transducer, to allow the quantitative development of some complex biochemical parameter.”
Parts of a biosensor
Every biosensor comprises:
- A biological component that acts as the sensor
- An electronic component that detects and transmits the signal
A variety of substances may be used as the bioelement in a biosensor. Examples of these include:
- Nucleic acids
- Proteins including enzymes and antibodies. Antibody-based biosensors are also called immunosensors.
- Plant proteins or lectins
- Complex materials like tissue slices, microorganisms and organelles
The signal generated when the sensor interacts with the analyte may be electrical, optical or thermal. It is then converted by means of a suitable transducer into a measurable electrical parameter – usually a current or voltage.
Biosensor probes are becoming increasingly sophisticated, mainly owing to a combination of advances in two technological fields: microelectronics and biotechnology. Biosensors are highly valuable devices for measuring a wide spectrum of analytes including organic compounds, gases, ions and bacteria.
History of biosensors
The first experiment to mark the origin of biosensors was carried out by Leland C. Clark. For his experiment, Clark used platinum (Pt) electrodes to detect oxygen. He placed the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) very close to the surface of platinum by trapping it against the electrodes with a piece of dialysis membrane. The enzyme activity was modified according to the surrounding oxygen concentration. Glucose reacts with glucose oxidase (GOD) to give gluconic acid and produces two electrons and two protons, thereby reducing GOD. The reduced GOD, the electrons, protons and the surrounding oxygen all react to give hydrogen peroxide and oxidized GOD (the original form), therefore making more GOD available for more glucose to react with. The higher the glucose content, the more oxygen is consumed and the lower the glucose content, the more hydrogen peroxide is produced. This means either an increase in hydrogen peroxide or a decrease in oxygen can be measured to give an indication of the glucose concentration.